Perhaps the oldest established of the three composer duos, Shankar Jaikishan got their break in Barsaat in 1949. Having worked under the very first composer duo of Hindi films, Husnlal-Bhagatram and, later, with Ram Ganguly, these two had no conventional education. Perhaps it would be correct to say that the generation of listeners born in the early ’60s were a lucky bunch who grew up on a cocktail of the compositions this duo created!
Shankar Jaikishan (Pic: Google Image Search)
There are many websites devoted to their music, millions of fans who have, perhaps, a better handle on the intricacies of their music. Perhaps musicologist Manek Premchand’s arrow hits closest to bull’s-eye when he talks about them “Keeping one eye on newness and the other eye on simplicity. Trying variations, reversing taals, reversing the start of the sthayi into avroh. Using counter-melody, taking the saxophone here, positioning the accordion elsewhere. But with all this, never losing focus of the fact that the songs just had to be listener-friendly. S-J didn’t want to compose complex melodies that were made for the sangeet gharanas. They wanted to make, and always managed to compose, tunes that you and I could listen to and sing and enjoy long after they themselves had left the film scene. This they achieved so well.”
I admit that I have never been able to classify S-J into any mold. Nor have I been able to explain to myself what it is that defines their music. If I were to put it simplistically, I’d say they are known for a truly unique combination – a teaspoon of classical music thrown in with a pinch of melody, garnished with a lilt – and voila! Another winner! Or their orchestration. Or their simply mind blowing preludes, interludes, postludes…Or… I could go on and on. But when I became enamored of their music, I knew none of this. I knew only that I loved a lot of their songs. And even though they worked with both Hasrat Jaipuri and Shailendra together in most movies, I have chosen songs written by Shailendra, simply to reduce the variables while trying to display
the range of their talent.
Hasrat Jaipuri, Jaikishan Raj Kapoor, Shankar and Shailendra (Pic: Cinema Sangeet)
In 1963 they had four releases: Hamrahi, Ek Dil Sau Afsane, Asli Naqli and Dil Ek Mandir. All of them with their favorite poets Hasrat Jaipuri and Shailendra doing the honors. I do think it’s important here to note that none of these were RK Films. Let’s see if we can unearth the genius that was S-J using their 1963 releases as a sample of their work.
Here is more than a teaspoon of classical music: Lata’s Mann re tu hi bataa kya gaaun in Hamrahi is the cry of a forlorn heart unable to contain itself and as incapable of sharing her grief. A semi-classical touch with the mellifluous sitar prelude devoid of any other instrument, joined by a few chords and Lata’s piercing address to her “mann” starts the song. In fact after each verse, the comeback to the “mann re” is devoid of any music except these guitar chords in the background. It’s almost as if the “mann” cannot take the weight of any instrument, lest it break completely. Lata’s voice, sans any melody or percussion makes a deeper impact. The tabla, the sitar, the violins, those guitar chords, used so prudently by the duo here. To end with that plaintive cry to the “mann” – just fabulous! Shailendra’s words? Haunting.
Mann re tu hi bataa kya gaaun (Hamrahi, 1963) Shankar-Jaikishan / Shailendra / Lata
To show the melody that their music is so full of, here’s an unusual Rafi-Raj Kapoor combine from Ek Dil Sau Afsane! This duet is a shock to watch for the first time as one doesn’t associate Rafi’s voice with the Showman at all. In complete contrast to the sitar and high notes in Mann re, hear how softly this one starts off! Soft and firm. Not tentative. How attractive the repeating sound of that brush on the drums is throughout the song! A simple love song, this one depends on the waltz beat and meter and the drums to slowly steal your heart. Uncomplicated, yet rich with little touches, like how the drums start up each time the mukhda starts. How the accordion flirts with the orchestra and peeks into each verse.
And Shailendra? He makes you smile here. Notice his play on words in the mukhda? One says “my world is full of you, like a garden is full of flowers.” Complete saturation. The other says “you’re unique for me, like the moon is unique in the sky.” Only one. A delight of a song that never grows old. You start listening and long after the song is over, you’re still humming, Tum hi tum ho…
Tum hi tum ho (Ek Dil Sau Afsane, 1963) Shankar-Jaikishan / Shailendra / Lata and Rafi
Let’s elaborate a little on their ‘eye on simplicity’. The song that instantly comes to mind is one from Asli Naqli sung beautifully by Lata. In a movie that boasted beautifully penned and composed, extremely popular songs like Tujhe jeevan ki dor se, Laakh chhupao chhup na sakega, Chheda mere dil ne tarana tere pyar ka, Kal ki daulat aaj ki khushiyan, this Lata-Sadhana combine comes like the freshest air of dawn, even as it has been filmed at night. A whiff of the purest air there is. A song that combines the jubilation of falling in love with the darr of being in love! Shailendra expressing this as only he can – simply, clearly. Lata and Sadhana both elevating this simplicity to the sublime.
The heady excitement, with the fear of losing something as valuable as one’s life partner dogging at the heel of this whirlwind of emotion.
Chahat ka hai harsu asar, Tujhko dekhun, dekhun jidhar….
Chalti hun main taaron par, Phir kyun mujhko lagta hai darr…
Hear how S-J create the effect they want. Do you know that the eye of a storm is quite still? This is how this song feels. The steadiness of this lady’s emotion, so believable because it is so steady; in tandem with the flourish of violins that start off the song! In the interludes, we have that accordion peeping again creating that little anxiety in the waltz-rhythm of the orchestra! The verses, where the orchestra fades to give way to the heartbeat – the tabla. The result?
Kya kaha hai chand ne, jisko sun ke chandani
har lahar pe jhoom ke, kyun ye nachane lagi
To some, the two waltz songs above may seem similar, but their treatment sets them apart. While the duet is a private whispering of sweet-nothings, the Lata solo above is the sheer joy of being alive and in love with that intoxicating and oh-so-real hint of fear that doesn’t dampen the mood…that feeling of dancing on waves, or stars, remains long after the song is over.
Tera mera pyaar amar (Asli Naqli, 1963) Shankar-Jaikishan / Shailendra / Lata
By far, the most popular, the most classical-based album that S-J came up with in 1963 remains Dil Ek Mandir. A movie that could have just remained a tearjerker had it not been for its fine music and some wonderful performances that elevated it a notch. Meena Kumari, Raaj Kumar and Rajendra Kumar, all in their best tragic costumes. What elevates the story is the character of not only the doctor, his sacrifice, but the acceptance of this doctor’s role in his wife’s previous life by the husband, in my very humble opinion. Meena Kumari as the quintessential Indian wife, deeming her husband her devta is in her element. S-J give her two solos as the wife, both undying compositions. One that reveals a little of her struggle to accept this man as her husband, having loved another – a Hasrat Jaipuri-penned poem that adds a little shade to her cookie-cutter character, and is therefore a personal favorite.
Hum pyar ke gangaajal mein *balam ji* tan-mann apna dho baitthe
Panchhi se chhuda kar uss ka ghar tum apne ghar par le aaye
Ye pyar ka pinjra mann-bhaaya, hum jee bhar-bhar kar muskaaye
Jab pyar hua iss pinjre se, tum kehne lage azaad raho
Hum kaise bhulayein pyar tera, tum apni zubaan se ye na kaho
Ab tum-sa jahaan mein koi nahi hai, hum to tumhare ho baitthe
Tum kehte ho ke aise pyar ko bhool jao, bhool jao…
The addition of that ‘ab’, whether done to balance the meter or intentionally, is a stellar touch. I confess- what endeared this song to a younger me was that phrase, so niftily tucked into the meter – the younger me actually waiting for the second verse to hear the balam ji-part! Sometimes it’s a small thing that leads to undying love – it doesn’t always have to be something grand! 🙂
Hum pyar ke gangaajal mein *balam ji* tan-mann apna dho baitthe.
The other, Ruk jaa raat, ttheher ja re chanda, beetey na milan ki bela, written by Shailendra, an audio-visual treat, is an entreaty and a commitment all at once. An entreaty for the night to last forever. A commitment to the husband that no matter what the morning brings, her bond with him will remain eternally.
Kal ka darna, kaal ki chinta, do tan hain, mann ek hamare
Jeevan-seema ke aage bhi, aaungi main sang tumhare…
The repetition of this last sentence, almost in a whisper without instrumentation, is a brilliant touch in a composition that is replete with violins, the piano, even a faint shehnai, and a beautiful tabla.
Hasrat Jaipuri writes a beautiful piece of poetry in the title song, giving a pure heart the stature of a temple, composed so beautifully with the high notes, sung with confidence by Rafi and Suman Kalyanpur. Ahh! What ideals we grew up with! These were songs that inspired way more than Moral Science lessons ever could.
Even in a feast full of satisfying courses and dishes, there is often times one that will top the others, even if by a hair’s breadth. Here it is the Rafi-crooned regret that makes my hair stand on end each time I hear it. Not only his voice and Shailendra’s poetry, but S-J’s treatment of both. Starting so unusually with a bulbul tarang that leads into the most unusual sound of the accordion – or is that an organ?-two completely opposing sounds here! The bulbul tarang is usually employed to express excitement, joy, or at least movement. The sounds of the organ/accordion here are foreboding, as if spelling doom! More than enough to get your attention toward this Raag Kirwani offering. The sound of the very same organ/accordion ends this song, maybe to denote that nothing has changed – the memories remain, as does the love. Rafi’s voice full of unshed tears, regrets, memories and a love that will not be forgotten. Shailendra’s words, unparalleled, his imagery of days past as birds that he wishes he could cage and feed pearls, keep close to his heart – Uff!
Yaad na jaaye beete dino ki (Dil Ek Mandir, 1963) Shankar-Jaikishan / Shailendra / Rafi
Is it any wonder that yaad na jaaye beete dino ki? When melody awakened us and melody put us to sleep. When life was maybe not as exciting as it is today, but it was rich. With the talent, the passion and the commitment of people like these film makers, actors, these composer duos, singers and these poets.
Such mein…din jo pakheru hote…seene se rehta lagaye….
Premchand, Manek (2003). Yesterday’s Melodies Today’s Memories. 2nd edition. Mumbai. Jharna Books.
About Monica Kar
Monica Kar has her BA in English Literature from the University of Delhi. She now lives in St. Charles, Missouri, USA, where she wears many hats. While she has worked in Publishing, Retail, Education and Construction in various roles, she has been a free-lance editor since 1987, and is currently part time editor with Learning and Creativity-Silhouette Magazine. In 2015 she started writing about her first passion – Hindi film songs of the Golden Age for an online music group. She welcomes suggestions and critiques on her writing as it makes her learn and grow as a writer.
This article is taken from learningandcreativity.com/silhouette
it is part of a piece written to honor the music of 1963
1)Shankar Jaikishan music, synonym of Indian Film music, has far reaching impact in India and outside. The cartier replica bracelet duo moulded music and musical mood of masses since 1949, and are still considered to be the best music composers from India.
The duo also contributed outside movie industry with their much celebrated albumRaga in Jazz Style, and background music for documentary Everest expeditionamong many others. If we look at the popular impact by any personalities in the Rolex Replica Watches field of music during the post independence period in India, the obvious choice is Shankar Jaikishan.
2)Shankar, the more versatile of the two, was a prolific musician with mastery over dozens of instruments, Indian classical music and dance forms. He was primarily responsible for building Shankar Jaikishan team with dedicated lyricists, music assistants, and jumbo-sized 60-pieces orchestra, and was the lead composer. On the other hand, Jaikishan was incredibly creative and legendary composer himself. He was genius of background music and romantic tunes though he too could compose songs in other genres.
During initial years, all decisions about musical engagements were made by Shankar; but both started taking up assignments cheap iwc replica separately in the late sixties.
They had sharp contrasts in personalities and physical appearances. Shankar was gym-savvy, non-drinker, and was a strict disciplinarian. On the other hand, Jaikishan was party-man and was very social. In fact, Jaikishan was mostly the point of contact for producers, directors and actors to incorporate their requests due to his friendly nature. Of course, both were great human beings, and were incredibly simple in spite of fame and richness.
3)Shankar was entirely dedicated for musical innovations during his whole life; it was his diwanapan. He created diverse tunes and musical edifices beyond human imagination during his career spanning from 1949 to 1987.
Shankar’s music has a zing that makes the listener shiver with divine thrill. His music is mostly filled with strange patterns and is difficult to copy without being identified. Some example tunes ascribed to Shankar are Awara Hoon, Yahoo! Koi Mujhe Junglee Kahe, Tera Jana, etc.
Shankar used to give importance to all aspects of a song – its tune, prelude, interludes and entire orchestra Breitling Replica Watches accompanying the song. He used to emphasise on the deployment of particular instruments and the way it is done.
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Shankar’s day used to start early in the morning and to continue until midnight. He is known to create tunes for a song instantly and is regarded as the fastest composer until today.
4)Jaikishan can safely termed as the best ever composer of romantic tunes. His ability of composing background music is breitling replica uk considered unparallel even by his contemporaries.
The example tunes ascribed to Jaikishan are Teri Pyari Pyari Soorat Ko (album:Sasural), Bedardi Balma Tujhko (album: Arzoo), Yeh mera prem patra (album:Sangam), etc.
He gives major emphasis to tunes in thewhole composition. He understood the taste of masses and struck right chord.
Jaikishan was very social and used to spend his major off-time withfriends andBreitling Replica Watches partying. However, he was very particular when it comes to work and sticking to timelines of assignments.
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5)Shankar was basically from Punjab, but his initial years were spent in Hyderabad. His full name was Shankarsingh Raghuwanshi, and he was an accomplished tabla player and dancer when he came to Mumbai. Later he assisted Husnlal Bhagatram for composing music, and took up music and stage performance assignments at Prithivi theatre. His proficiency in music and dedication was highly appreciated by his pears and seniors alike.
Jaikishan,Cheap Breitling Replica whose full name was Jaikishan Dayabhai Panchal, was from a royal musician’s family of Gujurat. He was initially trained in classical music by his mother. He achieved proficiency in playing harmonium. Later he came to Mumbai, and pursued his musical interests apart from working in a factory to meet his basic needs.
6)Shankar and Jaikishan first met when both were waiting for a director outside his office seeking some musical assignment. They developed an instant bond due to similar musical interests and ambitions.
In their meeting Shankar disclosed about a requirement of harmonium player at Prithivi theatre. Jaikishan expressed his interest, and Shankar recommended his name back at Theatre. Both then became colleagues, and collaborated for music assignments at Prithivi theatre.
When showman Raj Kapoor, eldest son of Prithviraj Kapoor (owner of Prithvi Theatre), made his first movie Aag, Shankar Jaikishan assisted Ram Ganguly, who was heading the music division of Theatre and was the obvious choice as music composer of the film.
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7)While assisting Ram Ganguly in music compositions, Shankar was ambitious. He had managed to show his ability in composing music independently to Raj Kapoor. Meanwhile, the showman was looking for a new creative team for his upcoming film “Barsat”, and proposed to Shankar to become its music composer. It was a great opportunity, and Shankar and Jaikishan wanted to go together for the assignment.
The music of Barsaat was a rage across India. The music was fresh accompanied by melodious tunes; and broke all barriers of music compositions for a movie. Their favourite lyricists Hasrat Jaipuri and Shailendra got associated with them from the first assignment. They used the then struggling singer Lata Mangeshkar for eight songs in Barsat, a surprise to everybody, and also for different characters in the film, another surprise!
The Shankar Jaikishan duo had formed cheap iwc replica .
8)Riding over huge success in their first movie, Shankar Jaikishan needed more assignments to prove that Cheap Breitling Replica they were not just one-time phenomenon. They started taking assignments apart from those from Fake Cartier. Their albums of Awara, Nagina and Poonam among others established them as the leading composers-duo.
Later, music scores of Awara and Shree 420 among others became very popular abroad. Shankar Jaikishan magic spread across globe.
9) With each movie Shankar Jaikishan brought an ever fresh blend to contemporary music. They concentrated in building unique orchestra form through great exploitation of Indian, oriental and western music, and with marathon practice hours with Cheap Rolex Replica dedicated musicians. Shankar-jaikishani Orchestra was born with Sebastian De’Souza in charge there of. Rhyme section was being looked after by Dattaram, an independent and successful music composer himself. The stage was now set for a big showdown in music scene.
Shankar Jaikishan went on creating albums like New Delhi, Chori Chori, Basant Bahar, Dil Apna Aur Preet Paraye, Yahudi and Anari among others. With the sheer versatility of tunes, accompanying orchestra and perfection in subtle musical orientation, Shankar Jaikishan established their supremacy. Indian music started being identified with film music in general, and with Shankar Jaikishan music in particular.
Early sixties saw Jaikishan contributing almost equal number of scores as Shankar. Both released batteries of scores and surpassed all musical norms.
Shankar-jaikishani orchestra started increasing to a jumbo size, and varieties of movies provided suitable platform to unleash their creativity to cartier replica bracelet its climax. Their music studio became a sacred place for all musicians and young composers.
11) Shankar Jaikishan started taking more assignments, but the quality remained intact. The series of albums with fast dance scores and slow romantic melodies became saleable pattern and success-movie-formula.
Shankar Jaikishan became highest paid music directors of their time. Movies attracted people to movie halls due to a mere mention of Shankar Jaikishan as its music directors
With increasing work pressure, Shankar and Jaikishan started giving music independently. Lyricist Shailendra (for the next few years until his untimely death) mostly worked with Shankar and lyricist Hasrat Jaipuri with Jaikishan.
Jaikishan was then a married man and started composing music from his home whereas Shankar was working from their music studio. However, there was give-and-take in a great way, and collaboration continued.
With achievement of incredible fame and signing for numerous movies (see cheap iwc replica towards late sixties), the music quality deteriorated with respect to their own standard. Non-musical phenomenon entered into their musical pursuit. To add, a series of their movies crashed at box-office. Movie producers started associating with other composers as they were charging much lesser fees and could strike an acceptance among popular masses. This saw the beginning of decline of Shankar Jaikishan brand and triggered the end of Golden Era of Hindi film music. In fact, some young composers like Kalyanji-Anandji, Laxmikant Pyarelal, and R D Burman had started getting popular attention and approval with their music being moulded in the line of Shankar Jaikishan music.
With Shankar and Jaikishan working separately, critics found it an opportunity to create an atmosphere of mistrust as both had then become the primary media attention and were susceptible then. Some of their sycophants and wrong friends started playing spoil-sport. Moreover, Shankar and Jaikishan started signing a large number of movies beyond their capacity, and made ways for their decline. However, they could hold their fort intact as the top music directors until Jaikishan’s death and desertion of their native R. K. Films banner.
14) Jaikishan fell ill and died in the year 1971. In late sixties, Jaikishan was producing more number of popular scores compared to his senior counterpart, and was ahead in the Breitling Replica Watches popularity chart during that time.
With Jaikishan’s untimely death, the Shankar Jaikishan brand received the fatal blow, and was not the same again.
Shankar kept the brand name intact by Breitling Replicaretaining the name Shankar Jaikishan even after Jaikishan’s death. But situation was quite different for genius Shankar then. The year 1971 saw release of maximum number of albums by Shankar Jaikishan that were mostly done Cheap Breitling Replica by Jaikishan. But majority of them crashed at box-office, and Shankar were in terrible pressure professionally too after loosing Jaikishan.
Shankar started completing the unfinished albums signed by Jaikishan and himself. After failed albums in 1971, Shankar was not given the 60-piece orchestra for their new albums by producers citing cost reasons. The quality of music was affected in the process. Shankar too could not reconcile with the changed scenario, and many top banners including R. K. Films distanced themselves from him due to past box-office failures.
Shankar was in dilemma.
16) In spite of all odds, Shankar continued his music pursuit single-handedly and produced some highly popular albums like Beimaan (the last film awarded by Filmfare to Shankar Jaikishan), Naina, Lal Pathar, Seema (new), Vachan, and Do Jhoot among others. By then, commercial viability of Shankar Jaikishan brand was almost at stake, and Shankar’s most trusted leiutants were about to leave for greener pasture. Shankar undertook creating album of Sanyasi as entrusted by producer and director Sohanlal Kanwar.
For all technical reasons, Sanyasi remains the last major album of Shankar Jaikishan. Its scores were so popular that everybody believed that Shankar Jaikishan brand was again going to dominate Bollywood. But it did not happen – reasons were, of course, non-musical – Shankar (Jaikishan) already had their time.
17) Even after Sanyasi, Shankar continued providing music for movies though he also associated himself with TV programs in early eighties. These years also saw some novel scores being created. Notable albums during this era are Atmaram, Garam Khoon, Chorni, and Eent Ka Jawab Patther among others. But Shankar Jaikishan brand had already gone into oblivion.
18) Shankar died in the night of April 26, 1987 due to a massive heart attack as known from his family source. The world came to know about his death a day after the cremation was over.
As their public tributes, the showman Raj Kapoor attributed the musical success of his movies to Shankar Jaikishan, and singer Lata Mangeshkar termed him as the best of the best composers. But Shankar was no more.
19) Shankar Jaikishan music has a distinct character. People easily recognise a score to be of Shankar Jaikishan if it is melodious accompanied by soothing but high octave orchestra. Their music varies from fast-paced ones to very slow ones, but each one blends with orchestra well and creates an immediate bond with music lovers.
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20) It is always very surprising to know that Shankar Jaikishan experimented with 90-plus singers and 60-plus lyricists. Inspite of successful music albums with particular singers or lyricists, they used to use different people every time successfully. For example, they had successfully experimented with Manna Dey in Chori Chori and with Mukesh in Yahudi. They also used to bring newcomers and could produce amazing results like Lata Mangeshkar in Barsaat, C. H. Atma in Nagina, Subir Senin Kathputli, Sharda in Suraj, and Vishweshwar Sharma in Sanyasi among others.
21) When asked, Shankar had once told that their learning started with Indian classical music, and they went ahead for other clans of music later. However, the ease of use of both Indian classical and western music, and the depth of exploitation of both to create the Shankar Jaikishani flavour is magnificent and incredible. In fact, Shankar Jaikishan were the first to successfully experiment and blend Western, Arabian, and Latin American music into Indian musical sects.
They also had a rare ability to visualize the movie picturisation to cast the playback music into appropriate mould and frequency. Jaikishan had an unparallel acumen in background music with his best scores being Sangam and Mera Naam Joker; and he was primarily responsible for background scores of Shankar Jaikishan movies till his death. Shankar was also no less in producing background music and his notable score is Sanyasi. Both used to take just three days to complete the background score of a movie.
Shankar Jaikishan gave birth to distinct persona for each actor in their movies. They created a chaplin-like tramp image for Raj Kapoor, panerai replica aggresive romantic image for Shammi Kapoor, and gentle and around-the-tree persona for Rajendra Kumar among others. The movies of respective actors carried music appropriate to their screen Wholesale led light bulbs persona invariably.
23) When Shankar and Jaikishan started as a team, it was a strategic decision that changed the musical history of India later. Though nobody knows the reason of going together for such an assignment as it is first-time ever in India, they perhaps understood the level of quality and effort required to convert a film into a master musical piece. They were aware of contemporary process of music compositions and settings, and wanted to bring a radical change to it. They were later successful in this and went on being the greatest.
The duo started building an enviable team of large number of musicians, two proficient lyricists like Shailendra and Hasrat Jaipuri, a rhyme assistant like Dattaram, an orchestra arranger like Sebastian De’Souza. These people were great in their own faculty and knew their jobs well and exactly. However, credit of entire team management and consequent success goes mostly to Shankar Jaikishan as these team members could not create the same magic with other composers when they worked outside. It is always a point of discussion about how they could bring out such perfect scores with such a huge team when they themselves and most of their musicians had not gone through systematic study of western music schools.
Shankar Jaikishan team can be compared to any professional corporate house. Their deliveries were in time and to the perfection. Team members were also paid well.
24) Shankar Jaikishan exploited and extended musical horizon in the twentieth century, and gave young Indian Republic an expression and an identity in the field of music. They became source of inspiration to almost all young composers from sixties until today. Metamorphic forms of their scores are being represented by other composers throughout the world – title song of Hollywood blockbuster Ghost World in the year 1993, a popular album in UK, and background score of a movie by legendary movie director Satyajit Ray are the notable ones among many others. The leading Indian composers-duo in seventies, Laxmikant-Pyarelal, had set the goal of being another Shankar Jaikishan throughtout their career. The album Teesri Manzil by the music composer R D Burman, cast exactly in Shankar Jaikishani mould, is still considered to be his best; in fact, he had earned direct compliments from Jaikishan for those scores.
25) Today, Shankar Jaikishan music is popular in India and abroad due to its sheer quality. However, many of their albums are not being made available by the copyright owners. Unfortunately, many of their scores are being re-packaged in the name of actors or singers without the mention of the music composers. This commercial piracy must end, and there should be genuine and consistent effort from everybody involved to keep the treasure intact and available for music lovers.
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Coourtesy : Mukund Marulkar ji.
This feature is taken from internet, that is why the blogger has not even touched misspelled words nor agree/disagree with the views shared by its writer.
Shankar Jaikishan were among the greatest musicians to have graced Hindi cinema – they were exceedingly popular and 75 per cent of their films were musical hits
Distributors play a very critical role in the film industry. There were no distributors when the first feature film, Raja Harishchandra, was released in 1913. With the advent of talkies in 1931 when Ardeshair Irani’s, Alam Ara was released, distributors became a vital force. They decided to sell the film on the basis of studios or banners. Even though films started selling in the name of actors, the films of the 1950s and 60s were sold in the name of a music duo. This magical duo was Shankar Jaikishan.
Shankar Jaikishan started their career with Prithviraj Kapoor’s Prithvi Theatre. In 1949, Raj Kapoor (Prithviraj Kapoor’s eldest son) acted in Mehboob Khan’s magnum opus Andaz with Nargis and Dilip Kumar. He was impressed by Naushad’s music in the film. Andaz was a musical jubilee hit. Raj Kapoor had decided to have music like Andaz in his next film Barsaat, the same year. Ram Ganguly was its composer. Soon, differences between Raj Kapoor and Ganguly developed and Shankar Jaikishan were brought in.
Barsaat had Lata Mangeshkar, who was trying hard to establish herself as a playback singer. Shankar had heard her earlier and brought her to give playback in Barsaat. Lata sang all the eleven numbers of Barsaat, nine solos and two duets with Mukesh. For the first time, Lata gave playback for Nargis, Nimmi and Bimla. Barsaat was a blockbuster. Its music stirred the nation. Shankar Jaikishan scaled the dizzy heights with their maiden film.
Shankar Jaikishan, Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra and Lata became the permanent team of R K Films. Barsaat’s music became a trendsetter. It is often said that Shankar Jaikishan gave their best to R K Films. They remained loyal to Raj Kapoor and indebted to too as he had given them their maiden break. Between 1951 and 52, Shankar Jaikishan also gave scintillating music in films outside R K Films.
Their third film was Bhagwan Das Verma’s Badal (1951) starring Prem Nath, Madhubala. Who can forget the compositions of the duo, Main rahi bhatakne wala hoon (Mukesh) Unse pyaar ho gaya dil mere kho gaya (Lata) and Dulcet duet Ae dil na mujhse chhipa kya hua (Lata/Mukesh). In the same year, Kishore Shahu’s Kali Ghata was released and the duo showed their versatility with Dil mein tu mere dil mein tu, Humse na puchho koi pyaar kya hai, Maine kya kiya sitam unke sitam ne loot liya, Ille bel laa illaa din hain pyare pyare and a romantic duet Ho madhur Milan hai sajna. The film did average business at the box office but was remembered for its hit numbers.
Shankar Jaikishan were very particular and never compromised with their singers. They gave an opportunity to C H Aatma in Dalsukh Pancholi’s Nagina. C H Aatma sang hit iconic numbers in typical K L Saigal style, Rooo main sagar ke kinare and Dil beqraar hai mera, Ek sitara hai aakash mein, Lata also sang her unforgettable sad number Tune hi mere zakhm-e-Jigar ko chhoo liya.
Seeing their popularity, legendary Amiya Chakraborty signed Shankar Jaikishan for his super hit film Daag (1952), starring Dilip Kumar, Nimmi. Shankar Jaikishan took Talat Mehmood for the first time to do playback for Dilip Kumar. They made three versions of their evergreen number Ae mere dil kahi aur chal in happy and sad versions in Talat’s voice and also in Lata’s voice.
In 1953, Raj Kapoor made a film on a Tuberculosis patient, Aah, which was directed by Raja Nawathe along with Nargis and Pran. Unlike Awara and Barsaat, the film didn’t do well at the box office. Even the re-edited version with a new end failed to impress.
In the same year, Shankar Jaikishan gave music in seven films – Aas, Aurat, Boot Polish, Mayur Pankh, Naya Ghar, Patita and Shikast. They gave enchanting melodies in these films. Zulm ki nagri mein (Lata) in Aas, Naino se nain hue chaar, Aa sun le mere dil ki pukaar, Dard-E-jigar thaher zara and Bewafa ne de diya ghum zindgani loot li (Lata) in Aurat.
Shankar Jaikishan composed a variety of songs in R K’s Boot Polish, Nanhe munhe bachche teri mutthi mein kaya hai (Asha/Rafi, chorus) Chali kaun si desh gujriya tu saj dhaj ke (Asha/Talat), a light number Lapak jhapak tu aa re badarwa (Manna De) and the title song Thehr zara o jane wale babu (Asha/Manna Dey/Madhubala Jhavri). There was also Ja re ja ranjo ghum ke andhere tu jaa (Lata) in Naya Ghar.
They gave all-time great numbers in Patita – Kisi ne apna bana ke mujhko, Mitti se khelte ho bar bar kis liye (Lata), Andhe jahan ke andhe rasre, Tujhe apne pass bulati hai teri duniya and Hain sabse madhur wo geet (Talat) and evergreen melodious romantic duets in Lata and Hemant’s voice Yaad kiya dil ne kahan ho tum. Shikast too had classical-based numbers in Raag Chandrakaush, Jab jab phool khile tujhe yaad kiya humne (Talat/Lata) and Sapno ki suhani duniya ko (Talat).
Surprisingly, in 1954, only two of their films released – Pooja and Badshah. Both the films flopped but Shankar Jaikishan gave immortal the romantic duet, set in Raag Bheem Palasi, Aa neel gagan tale pyaar hum karein (Lata/Hemant) in Badshah.
In 1955, they came back with their magical touch in Amiya Chakarverti’s Seema starring Balraj Sahni, Nutan and Shobha Khote. Their glorious gems were in their favorite Bhairvi, Suno chhoti se gudiya ki lambi kahani which starts with Ustad Ali Akbar Khan’s Sarod, and the enthralling melodies Baat baat pe rutho na, Manmohna bade jhuthe (Lata). Manna Dey’s all-time great Tu pyaar ka sagar hai and Rafi’s heart rendering Kahan ja raha hai tu ae jane wale and Hume bhi de do sahara (Rafi/Chorus) in Qawwali style.
Shankar Jaikishan, besides Raj Kapoor, worked with almost all major directors. They were in a position to dictate their own terms. They even declined the offers made by B R Chopra and V Shantaram. They did films of all genres and periods.
Shankar Jaikishan ruled the industry for more than two decades. They were at their best in creativity and versatility. If they were responsible for getting their first FilmFare Award for Sab kuch sikha humne (Mukesh) in Anari (1959) though Mukesh was their favorite, they got best of Rafi in Chahe mujhe koi jangli kahe, Ahsan tera hoga mujh par in Junglee. Ae gulbadan in Professor, Tumse se accha kaun hai in Janwar, Yaad na jaye bite dino ki in Dil Ek Mandir and Dil ke jharokhe mein in Brahmchari. After Dil Ek Mandir they started working separately, but they kept their credit intact.
Jaikishan gave scintillating melodies in Arzoo. After completing the music for Ramanand Sagar, Jaikishan left for London. When Sagar wanted to add one Qawwali, Jaikishan recommended Shankar’s name. Similarly, all songs of Teesri Kasam were recorded by Shankar.
When Jaikishan was asked to score the background music of Teesri Kasam, he realised after listening to the song that it lacked the touch of Shankar Jaikishan and suggested Shailendra, who was the producer and lyricist of the film, to include two more songs and composed two numbers penned by Hasrat Jaipuri, Mare gaye gulpham and Duniya banana wale. Though the film didn’t do well initially, it later became a Bollywood milestone.
In the 1970s, film music was changing very fast. The golden days for the trio of Dilip, Raj and Dev were over. Shammi Kapoor and Rajendra Kumar were also fading out. The new generation of Rajesh Khanna, Jitendra and Amitabh Bachchan had taken over. Rajesh Khanna preferred R D Burman but he appeared in a guest appearance and sang his iconic number in Kishore’s voice Zindgi ek safar hai suhana which was Jaikishan’s last song.
Jaikishan scummed to cirrhosis on September 1971.
In spite of differences, this was a big blow to Shankar. He didn’t take any assignment for a long period and as a result, he lost many films. Even his mentor Raj Kapoor replaced him with Laximikant Pyarelal in Bobby. Shankar’s last notable film was Sanyasi. Shankar died on April 26, 1987.
During their reign, they were also accused of plagiarism. They had copied music from Egyptian, Arabian, Italian and even tunes of Gypsy music but one thing in their defense was that they Indianised the music so well that it appeared original. They revolutionised the concept of an orchestra. They were responsible for popularising film music. 75 per cent of their films were resounding hits and many celebrated golden and silver jubilees.
They were winners of nine Filmfare Awards for Chori Chori (1956), Anari (1959), Dil Apna Aur Preet Prayee (1960), Professor (1962), Suraj (1966), Brahmchari (1968), Pahchan (1970), Mera Naam Joker (1971) and Baiman (1972). They were also recipients of Cine Goers Association Award, Bombay Film Journalist Award and Sur Singar Sansad. They were conferred the Padma Shree in 1968.
Today Shankar and Jaikishan are not amidst us but their rich legacy of music will keep them alive in memories of music lovers for many years to come.
એક સુબહ …(શંકર)જયકિશન કે નામ !!
નવેમ્બર 12, 2009 Deepali દ્વારા
નેટની દુનિયામા વિહાર કરતા ગઇકાલે રાત્રે ફેસબુકમાં મિત્ર દિપાલી સોમૈયાની પ્રોફાઇલ વિઝિટ કરતાં જાણવા મળ્યુ કે “સા-રે-ગ-મ-પ” માં ત્રણ ગુજરાતી ગાયકો સેમિફાઇન સુધી પહોંચ્યા છે. આનંદ થયો. સાથે સાથે આ જ વાત પર દિલીપ મહેતા સાથે ધણી ચર્ચા થઇ. નૌશાદ તેમજ શંકર-જયકિશન કેન્દ્રમાં હતા. ચર્ચા રાષ્ટ્રવાદ તથા બીજા રીલેટેડ ટોપીક પર ચાલતી હતી પરંતુ ફરી ક્યારેક. કંઇક નવું જાણવા મળે પછી એ વિશે વધારે જાણકારી મેળવવા હું કાયમ તત્પર હોઉં છુ. બસ આ જ વિચારો સાથે બે-પાંચ આર્ટીકલ વાંચ્યા. Interesting ….
મુળ ગુજરાતી એવા જયકિશન વિશે આટલી બધી ખબર ન હતી. એક સંગીતકાર તરીકેની ઓળખાણએ આજે “એક ગુજરાતી”તરીકેનું વિશિષ્ટ સ્થાન લીધુ.
આજથી 40 વર્ષ પહેલા, સન 1968માં ભારતીય શાસ્ત્રીય સંગીત અને વેસ્ટર્ન મ્યુઝિકનુ fusion કરીને “RAGA JAZZ Style” નામનો concept પૂરો પાડનાર સૌ પ્રથમ વ્યક્તિ એટલે જયકિશન. અને એ પણ ભારતમા. આ પહેલા આવુ fusion ઉસ્તાદ રવિશંકરે કર્યુ હતુ પણ તે અમેરિકામાં. આ સમયે ફિલ્મ ઉધોગના સંગીતકારો કોઇ કારણોસર હડતાલ પર હતા. બધા જ સંગીતકારો ઘરે બેઠા હતા…આવામાં HMV ના શ્રી વિજયકિશોર દુબેના મનમાં એક પરિકલ્પનાનો જન્મ થયો અને તેમને આ વિશે શંકર-જયકિશનને વાત કરી. શંકરજીને આ વાત બહુ જામી નહી તેથી તેમને વિરોધ કર્યો. જયકિશને આ વાત યોગ્ય લાગી, તેઓએ શંકરજીના વિરોધ છતાં આ ચેલેંજ ઉપાડી લીધો અને કઇક ક્રીએટીવ કરવાનું નક્કી કર્યુ. આ વાતને સ્વીકારી લીધા બાદ તેમની આખી ટીમ કાર્યરત થઇ. લોકસત્તાના સહયોગથી પ્રાપ્ત થયેલ નીચેની તસ્વીરમા આ આખી ટીમનુ કામ જોઇ શકાય છે.
પ્રખ્યાત સિતારવાદક ઉસ્તાદ રઇઝ ખા , મશહૂર સેક્સોફોન વાદક મનોહર દાદા (કાળા ચશ્મા લગાયેલ મહાશય), ડ્રમ પર છે ડ્રમબોય ગોવિંદા અને જમણી બાજુ જયકિશનજી. આ સિવાય બીજા અન્ય વાદક કલાકારોએ પણ પોતાનુ હુનર બતાવ્યુ હતુ.
અનંત નૈયર તેમજ રમાકાંત (તબલા)
જોન પરેરા (Trumpet)
એ ડી ટ્રેવર્સ (Bass)
દિલીપ નાયક તેમજ કેસ્ટ્રો (Electric ગિટાર)
શાસ્ત્રીય રાગમાં પ્રસિધ્ધ રાગ તોડી, રાગ ભૈરવ, રાગ માલકૌંસ, રાગ કલાવતી, રાગ તિલક કામોદ, રાગ મલ્હાર, રાગ વૈરાગી, રાગ જયજયવંતી, રાગ મિશ્ર પીલૂ, રાગ શિવ રંજની તેમજ રાગ ભૈરવીનો સમાવેશ થાય છે.
આવો આ બધામાંથી “રાગ તોડી” સાંભળીયે. શાસ્ત્રીય સંગીતને સમજતા સમજતા આખી જીન્દગી પસાર થઇ જાય એમ છે. નાની નાની બાબતોને ધ્યાનમાં રાખવાની હોય છે તેમ શાસ્ત્રીય સંગીત જાણનારાઓ પાસેથી જાણવા મળ્યુ. આ બારીકતાને તો આપણે ન ઓળખી શકીએ પણ સિતારમાંથી રેલાતા સુર જ્યારે હવામાં પ્રસરાય છે ત્યારે ખરેખર દિવ્યાનુભૂતિ થાય છે.
આપણને આવા “Indo-Jazz Recording” થી પરિચિત કરાવનાર શ્રી જયકિશનને સલામ !
Lakshmi K Tummala
15th October 2019
We have seen people come and people go, but very seldom do we come across a person who is the most evolved and complete. His insatiable interest and amazing talent in music helped him to totally focus and dedicate his entire life for his passion. He is non other than the legendary Shankar.
The master musician was the candle that shone bright to shed light around. The kind hearted and generous human was a caring relative, modest, loyal and proud gentleman, all rolled into one exemplary human being. He was a well grounded man who did not allow his super success get to his head. By the front door of his home and in his car, Shankar kept pairs of his old shoes to always remind him of his modest beginning. For that alone, my respect for the gentlemen soared very high.
Politics and showbiz are volatile fields. You are up one day and down the other. There are no permanent relationships here, only fair weather friends. With his close friends, Shailendra and Jaikishan gone, Shankar had to face the hardships of abandonment of those whom he thought were the closest. But the brave man weathered it all. His immense strength kept him going, never having to bow to anyone, never having to compromise.
Today, on his birth anniversary, it pains me no end to think that the media had deliberately chosen to ignore the vast and best contribution that he, along with Jaikishan, had made to the music world. The banner he helped create with his buddy is ignored intentionally. People might forget the great composer, but his music will never be forgotten.
Happy Birthday, Shankar!! You will continue to live in our hearts and souls forever.
Contrary to the general assumption that “Chalat Musafir Moh Liya Rem Pinjare Wali Muniya” written by Shailendra and composed by Shankar Jaikishan for film TEESRI KASAM is a folk song or based on fold tune, IT IS NOT A TRADITIONAL FOLK TUNE.
It is magic of Shailendra’s pen and baton of music directors duo Shanker Jaikishen’s thought to give a tune and structure to the lyric that not only general people and music lovers, but musicologists too started believing that it must be based on some folk music or tune.
श्री द्वारका प्रसाद खाम्बिया
सामान्यतः कम फिल्मों में अच्छा संगीत देना संभव है परन्तु अधिक से अधिक फिल्मों में लोकप्रियता की बुलंदियों वाला संगीत अविराम व सतत 21 वर्षों तक देना ईश्वरीय वरदान है कहा जा सकता है। ऐसे वरदान से ईश्वर ने संगीतकार शंकर जयकिशन को नवाजा था। अपने नायाब संगीत द्वारा देश के साथ विदेशों में भी धूम मचा देने वाले वे प्रथम संगीतकार थे।
लोगों में सदैव जिज्ञासा बनी रही कि आखिर इतनी लोकप्रिय धुनों मे से कोन धुन किसकी है। यह जिज्ञासा जयकिशन जी की मृत्यु के बाद शंकर जी विरोधी समूह ने और बढ़ा दी। वे सिद्ध करना चाहते थे कि धुन जय किशन ही तैयार करते थे । लोगो में भी यह जानने की इच्छा प्रबल होने लगी कि आखिर जयकिशन की रचनाएं कोन सी है। कुछ पुष्ट जानकारियों के आधार पर ज्ञात होता है कि निम्नांकित कुछ लोकप्रिय धुनों को जयकिशन ने ही रचा था –
1 जीना यहां मरना यहां(मेरा नाम जोकर)
2 तुम जो हमारे मीत न होते ( आशिक)
3आजा सनम मधुर चांदनी में हम( चोरी चोरी)
4 आवाज दे के हमें तुम बुलाओ(प्रोफेसर)
5 इस रंग बदलती दुनियां में (राजकुमार)
6 तेरी प्यारी प्यारी सूरत को (ससुराल)
7 ए मेरे दिल कहीं और चल ( दाग)
8 सनों छोटी सी गुड़िया की ये कहानी(सीमा)
9 दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई (दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई)
10 देखा है तेरी आंखों में प्यार ही (प्यार ही प्यार)
11 आए बहार बन के लुभा के (वसंत बहार)
12 दिल के झरोखे में तुझ को (,ब्रम्हचारी)
13 ओ मेरे शाहे खूब ओ मेरी (लव इन टोकियो)
14 कहे झूम झूम रात ये सुहानी ( लव मैरिज)
15 अजी रूठ कर अब कहां जाइएगा(आरज़ू)
16 रसिक बलमा (,चोरी चोरी)
17 ये मेरा प्रेम पत्र पढ़कर(संगम)
ये गीत जयकिशन की संगीत रचनाओं की झलकी मात्र है।
परन्तु आम जनता श्रोता उन्हें उन्हें एकीकृत रूप में देखता है। भारतीय हिन्दी फिल्म संगीत के गौरवशाली
इतिहास के पृष्ठों पर जिन महान संगीतकारों के नाम स्वर्णिम अक्षरों अंकित है उनकी जगमगाती पंक्ति में शंकर जयकिशन का नाम निर्विवादत: सर्वत्र मुख व अग्रणी रूप से परि गणित किया जस सकता है।
उनके जादुई संगीत ने जहां एक ओर परंपरा और आधुनिकता के मध्य अभूतपूर्व सेतु का निर्माण किया वहीं दूसरी ओर अपनी विलक्षण प्रतिभा द्वारा वाद्ययंत्रों के कुशल इस्तेमाल,नूतन प्रयोगों,भावानुकूल गीतों के संयोजन तथा शास्त्रीय व पाष्छ्यात संगीत के बेजोड़ तालमेल द्वारा जून अनगिनत सरस,मधुर, कर्ण प्रिय व मनमोहक कालजयी गीतों का सृजन किया।वे न केवल भारत वरन् समूची दुनियां में फैले बेशुमार संगीत प्रेमियों के लिए सचमुच बेहद अनमोल धरोहर है।
बहुत कम प्रतिभा ऐं ऐसी होती है जिनको कालजयी होने का सौभाग्य नियति प्रदान करती है।शंकर जयकिशन का शुमार ऐसी ही कालजयी प्रतिभाओं में किया जा सकता है।वे न केवल अपने समय के सर्वाधिक लोकप्रिय संगीतकार रहे बल्कि यह कहना किंचित भी अतिशयोक्तिपूर्ण न होगा कि उनका मधुर संगीत आज भी प्रासंगिक होकर अपनी लोकप्रियता को बरकरार रखे हुए है।उनके द्वारा रचित बेमिसाल गीत आज भी दुनियां भर के संगीत प्रेमियों के कानों में रस घोलते है।
एक लोक प्रसिद्ध कहावत है कि जोड़ियां ऊपरवाला ही बनाता है ।शादी के संदर्भ में ख्यात यह कहावत संगीतकार जोड़ी शंकर जयकिशन पर सौ फीसदी खरी उतरती है। निः संदेह यह जोड़ी संगीत की नैसर्गिक प्रतिभा से संपन्न थी और नियति ने ही दोनों को मिलता भी। शंकर जी जहां नृत्य कला,सितार,पियानिं एवं अकोर्डियान बजाने में पारंगत थे तो वहीं जयकिशन जी हारमोनियम वादन में सिद्ध हस्त थे।हिंदी फिल्म संगीत की दुनियां में इस जोड़ी का मिलन ‘ मणि कांचन ‘ सिद्ध हुआ। उल्लेखनीय है कि जयकिशन दाया भाई (4 नवंबर 1932) मुंबई काम की तलाश में आए थे जहां उनकी मुलाकात दक्षिण आंध्र प्रदेश(तेलंगाना) से आए शंकर सिंह रामसिंह(15 अक्टूबर 1922)से गुजराती फिल्म निर्माता चंद्रवदन काम के सिसिले में हुई।शने: शने: यह मुलाकात प्रगाढ़ मेत्री में तब्दील हो गई।विपरीत स्वभाव इसके इन दो व्यक्तित्वों का संगीत के प्रति समर्पित भाव उभयनिष्ठ था। गठीले बदनवाले शंकर जहां धीर गंभीर स्वभाव के थे तो वहीं जयकिशन जी मस्तमौला प्रकृति के
आकर्षक व्यक्तित्व के धनी इंसान थे।,
शंकर जयकिशन के बृहद संगीत के कई आयाम है जो उनको अन्य संगीतकारों स्की तुलना में विशिष्ठ स्थान आसीन करते है।उनके बेमिसाल संगीत को कतिपय शीर्षकों के तहत वर्गीकृत करते हुए सुगमतापूर्वक समझा जा सकता है। ये शीर्षक इस प्रकार ही सकते है जैसे शास्त्रीय रागों पर आधारित गीत,लोक संगीत आधारित,सुकुमार भावाभिव्यक्ती प्रधान गीत,प्रेम व रूमानी भाववाले ,विरह दर्द वाले गीत,समूह गीत,नृत्य प्रधान गीत,ग़ज़ल शैली गीत,कव्वाली शैली गीत,भारतीय संगीत आधारित नृत्य गीत,पाध्छ्यात संगीत आधारित नृत्य गीत,भजन रूपी गीत, बाल गीत,प्रश्न/पहेली नुमा गीत, छेड़ छाड़ वाले गीत,हास्य प्रधान गीत,अनोखे/अटपटे बोल वाले गीत,भारतीय व पाष्छ्यात फ्यूजन गीत आदि।
समग्रहतः यह सुस्पष्ट होता है कि शंकर जयकिशन के बहुरंगी गीतों का एक व्यापक अत्यंत और विस्तृत संसार है जिसने विविध भावों को अनुकूल संगीत धुनों के साथ कुशलता पूर्वक संवारा गया है।इं मनमोहक व कर्णप्रिय गीतों का कलेवर सजाने संवारने में इस संगीत निपुण जोड़ी के दक्ष निर्देशन की भूमिका प्रमुखत : रही है।
लेकिन विविध का संगीत नियोजन करने में दत्ता राम व अरेंजर सेबेस्टियन की भूमिका भी अहम हुआ करती थी साथ ही विभिन्न वाद्ययंत्र वादकों का महती योगदान रहा है,जिनके वाद्यों ने शंकर जयकिशन के गीतों की प्राण वान बनाकर लोकप्रियता के बेमिसाल आयाम प्रदान किए
शंकर जयकिशन के विशाल ऑर्केस्ट्रा में एक से बढ़कर कुशल वाद्य यंत्र वादकों का शुमार रहा । कुछ के नाम उस प्रकार है –
1 पन्नालाल घोष (बांसुरी)
2 लाला गंगवाने ( ढोलक)
3 उस्ताद अली अकबर खां (सरोद)
4 पं राम नारायण (सारंगी)
5 उस्ताद रईस खां (सितार )
6 एस हज़ारा सिंह(इलेक्ट्रिक गिटार)
7 मनोहारी सिंह ( सैक्सोफोन)
8 चिक चॉकलेट (ट्रंपेट)
9 वी बलसारा (हारमोनियम)
10 गुडी सिरवाई( अकिर्डियान)
11 सुमित मित्रा (अकोर्डियान) आदि इत्यादि।
कुल मिलाकर यह कहा जा सकता है कि शंकर जयकिशन का ऑर्केस्ट्रा अत्यंत समृद्ध था उसके भीतर विलक्षण प्रतिभा वाले तथा अपने अपने वाद्यों के वादन में दक्ष कलाकार शामिल थे। इन अति निपुण व दक्ष कलाकारों के समन्वय व सहभागिता से शंकर जयकिशन ने अनगिनत अमर गीतों का सृजन किया।
BINACA GEET MALA ANNUAL BILLBOARD CHART OF SHANKAR JAIKISHAN SONGS Statistics
- Total films of Shankar Jaikishan 171 ( out of which 79 films songs broadcast/played in Binaca)
- Less: Films of pre Binaca(1949-52) 8
- Films whose song played in Binaca 79 (48.50%)
- SONGS Total Hindi songs composed by SJ 1276
- Less: Songs of pre Binaca (1949-52) 69
- Total songs played in Binaca 134 (10.52%)
- Maximum songs of a film played 5(JDMGBH)
- Number One songs (Binaca Rating) 6
- Number 2 to 10 (Binaca Rating) 52
- Number 11 to 20 (Binaca Rating) 37
- Number 21 to 32 (Binaca Rating) 39
- Maxmium songs played in a year 14 (1959)
- Songs of decade 1950s 34
- Songs of decade 1960s 82
- Songs of decade 1970s 18
- Songs of decade 1980s 0
- No song played in Binaca in years 1954, 1973, 1974, 1976-87
- Lata Mangeshkar 36 songs
- Mohammed Rafi 34
- Mukesh 19
- Lata Mangeshkar & Mukesh 8
- Lata Mangeshkar & Manna Dey 6
- Kishore Kumar 5
- Asha Bhosle & Kishore Kumar 4
- Lata Mangeshkar & Mohammed Rafi 4
- Suman Kalyanpur & Mohd Rafi 3
- Asha Bhosle 2
- Asha Bhosle & Mohammed Rafi 2
- Manna Dey 2
- Subir Sen 2
- Lata Mangeshkar & Hemant Kumar 1
- Lata Mangeshkar & Subir Sen 1
- Mubarak Begum & Mohammed Rafi 1
- Sharda 1
- Sharda & Mukesh 1
- Talat Mahmood 1
- Asha, Kishore & Mukesh 1
- Hasrat Jaipuri 68 songs
- Shailendra 52
- Neeraj 4
- Vineshavar Sharma 2
- Verma Malik 3
- Rajinder Krishan 2
- Anand Bakshi 2
- Dev Kohli 1
compiled by Pashambay Baloch Karachi – 01 January 2015 PB:
Ashok Jagtap (musician in Bollywood)
I came to Mumbai to try my luck in the industry.One of my friend introduced me to Bal Parte.Actually his name was Jaikumar but he was popularly known as Bal Parte.
Parte was assistant to Kalyanji Anandji and Usha Khanna.One day, he called me to his music room at warli and gave me some notations to play.He liked my playing and promised me to call for K.A.Recording.He kept his word.
I had hardly played two three recordings when this incident happened.
It was K.A.’s recording at film centre.I thought as usual I will play with orchestra but Parteji called me aside and asked me if I can play song with artist, as regular song violinist Narvekarji was not coming due to health problem.Parteji knew that I learned Indian as well western notation.To play song violin one has to have knowledge of classical music.I said I can try.
I took my violin and went to singers cabin.
After some time Rafisahab came followed by Ashaji.It was for the first time i saw both the legends.I said ” Namaste ” to both but inwardly I was nervous.Kalyanjibhai explained them the tune.I checked my notations.Within half an hour both the artists were ready and all of us went to the centre of the hall for rehearsal with full orchestra.Parte and Frank farnand were counducting the orchestra.Babla was looking after rhythm section.When rehearsal was over, artists wore headphones and went in the cabin.They were given placing.I too wore headphone and full mike rehearsal started.So far it was going well.
After some time Anandjibhai came out of the recording room and said, he found the song dull.He told the singers”Let us make the key half note high if both of you are comfortable.”
Inwardly I become more nervous as I was not accustomed to such a sudden change.When reharsal started,I was fumbling with notes.What I was playing went directly in singers earphones.Ashaji stopped singing and told some one”Bal la bolv”(call Bal).Parteji came promptly.She said “where is Narvekarji?”He tu konala pakdun anle aahe ?”Where did you get this guy? Her words entered my ears like hot lead. I become totally numb.Rafisahab told her that he is new and we would manage.After some time when Ashaji went out of the cabin to talk to someone,Rafisahab came near me.He put his hand on my back and said”koi baat nahi.Iska dimag jaldi garam hota hai.”Some how the recording was over.
This is how I met Rafisahab for the time.This small incident tells a lot about Rafisahab’s nature.I will never forget this incident but it was blessings in disguise.
I started practicing more and more. Six hours a day.For years I continued practiceing.
Years went by.Slowly I established myself.
Started playing with almost all music directors.
My first love was to play with orchestra but when need arised ,I played songs too.On many occasions I have to play with Ashaji.There was no Trace of past incident.She was comfortable with me.She would chat with me freely.
I played many songs with Rafisahab too. Anil Mohile who later became arranger used to play song violin with me.Together we both played many songs with different singers. Rafisahab,Lataji,Ashaji,all of them had amazing memory. It would take hardly half an hour for them to pick up the song. Most of the songs would be recorded within four hours. As the recording techniques developed, it increased the time required for recording instead of reducing it.
Rafisahab was a perfect gentleman. I’ve never seen him getting angry or being rude to anybody. Ashaji was exactly the opposite. If not in mood, she would make life miserable for the music directors or whoever in the range. I had seen her leaving the sets and music directors running after her. She is very out spoken but her anger would not last long. On the contrary Rafisahab never got angry. No matter how many retake’s he had to give he would sing till the music director was fully satisfied.
Only once he lost his cool at the recording of
Khayyamsahab.Khayyamsahab has habit of taking many retakes.He is never satisfied easily but that particular day after many retakes he was still not getting satisfied.He made Rafisahab sing more than 32 times.Everybody was tired.Rafisahab’s face was turning red but see his decency.Another person at his place would have walked out but he sangtill Khayyamsahab was satisfied.When Khayyamsahab came out of the recording room,he told him not to call himAgain and he never sang with Khayyamsahab again.
I remember him coming in his green fiat. Later he used chevrolet models. His brother in law Zahir would always accompany him. He was kind of his secretary. He was very friendly with us.He told us many unknown facts of Rafisahab’s greatness in his personal life. Rafisahab financially helped many needy musicians, singers even music directors who were old and out of work. For some ‘Lifafa’ would be ready and reach that person every month so he does not have to come to collect it. He did it all of this very secretly.We came to know about is only because of zahir. For the poor he was a ‘Masiha.
Once a musician who used to play with him wanted to buy a property.He set his eyes on one particular property which he liked very much but he has hardly twenty-five percent of the saving with him.He told his difficulty to his friend who advised him to approach Rafisahab.He was hesitant as the amount was not small but his friend convinced him to try.He went to Rafisahab’s house.He told him the reason.Without asking a single question Rafisahab went inside and came back with bundle of notes.That musician cried.In due course of time he returned the amount but it takes golden heart to help others.
Memory is like a small child walking on a sea-shore. You never know which pebble he will pick and treasure for the rest of his life. I also have some pebbles that I have stored .Today is Rafisahab,s death anniversary so i want to share these incidents with you which happened long time ago.
Actualy I am not an eye witness to the incidents but i got first hand information from my musician friends who always accompanied Rafisahab. Even in his famous world tour also he accompanied him. A regular player in film industry too. Before we go on with the incident, let me tell you about Narayan Naidu, a fine tabla player. I remember him for one more reason and cant resist the temptation to tell you about it.
He was staying at the distance of hardly five minutes from the place where I used to stay. Every Gokul Astami he used to call his musician friends to his house for Jagran. There would be a vocal as well as instrumental program till dawn. Many musicians from film industry used to attend every year.Kalyanjibhai’s assistant Bal Parte also used to come every year.
At four o clock or five o clock all would be served with rice and sambar.
To come back to the point Rafisahab’s program was at Gandhi Nagar Gruh, Vadodara.
In those days record dance by female dancer was a must. A dancer named Sheela Ramani who acted or better to say danced in few films and was famous. Due to some reason she could not come for the program and the ticket holder created a ruckus when they got to know this. Even few chairs were broken. Police were called. Before the situation could go out of hand, the organizers agreed to return the money to those who want to return the tickets. He was so nervous that he asked Rafi sahab to announce the same.
The curtain opened and Rafi sahab appeared on the stage and announced that whoever wants thair money back can have them and program will continue without dancer. But nobody returned the tickets. as the program started,everybody forgot about dancer and the program passed on peacefully.
Buji lord is good friend of mine.He is a very good drumer and vibraphone player.Buji’s father was a great persecutionist.His late brother Kercy Lord was a accomplished arranger who worked with Naushad,Madanmohan and many other music directors.Rafisahab was so close to Lord’s family that he even attended Buji’s marriage.He told me about West Indies tour which was held in year 1966.
Rafisahab was accompanied by Enoc Danial, Narayan Naidu,guitarist Dilip Naik and Abdul Karim.Female singer was Minoo Purshottam.In those days she was famous stage artist.Later Dilip Naik got married to her.
People were crazy for Rafisahab.For hours they would wait out side the hotel to just see him.Buji said he was surprised to see public response. All shows were housefull.He said,
Once the organizer tried to accommodate musicians in different low budget hotel.When Rafisahab came to know,he told the organizer that his musicians should get the same treatment and if he has any problem,he would not mind shifting to the hotel where his musicians were accommodated.
There was some type of gossip with almost all top singers but not Rafisahab.In my long carrier in film industry I never heard any body speaking against him.He was ajatshatru (person without enemy).He was not in a rat race for money.
I will tell you another small incident.
Music director Srikant Telang was my close friend.Both of us were staying in same building. He gave music in five to six small budget films.It was his wish to record at least one song by Rafisahab.His budget was so small that it was impossible to call Rafisahab for singing.
Amar Haldipurkar was his arrenger.He said”let us aproch Rafisahab.No harm in trying”.When reached there ,his brother in law zahir opened the door.He was the one who looked after financial affair of Rafisahab.Srikant told him about limited budget.He said “look.Rafisahab charges fifteen thousands but since I know you all,I will settle for thirteen thousand”In those days this amount was not small.Srikant’s face fell. Luckily same time Rafisahab came in the hall.Zahir told him about thirteen thousands.Looking at Srikants face he said ok ! How much you can afford?With great difficulty Srikant said”Sir my total budget is seven thousands.That including studio..Musicians charges etc.I can afford only two thousand.Rafisahab immediately said OK.Dont worry about money.Asked Zahir to write down date in diary.This was nature of Rafisahab.
This was not new for Rafisahab.Years ago same thing happened with Lakshmikant Pyarelal.Only difference was he returned the money and asked to share them among themselve.
You will be surprised to know that in those dayes some top singers were getting very good payment but still they charged hundred rupees extra for petrol and driver.
When Lataji was fighting for royalty,she was expecting Rafisahab to tow in her line but rafisahab flatly refused.She stopped singing with him.
After the release of film Aradhana,it was lean period for him.Actualy Rafisahab was supposed to sing all song of Aradhana.He sang first two songs but then senior Burmanda fell ill and R.D.took over.He wanted fresh voice and rest is history.
During that period he sang many beautiful songs with other singers .
Nearly two year after Rafisahab’s death, there was a recording at Bombay lab in Dadar. Music director was Roshan. He was not the famous music director Roshan but a messenger who worked with music director Ravi. He was giving music for the first movie he got. The song was being recorded at Bombay labs – As we were waiting for the rehearsal to start,
And then Rafi sahab entered. All were shocked and there was pin drop silence. It was only after he came close that we realised that he must be Rafisahab’s brother and later it was confirmed. Until then we had no idea that Rafi sahab had a brother. Though they were not identical twins, he looked like Rafisahab. Later he sang few songs with some small time music directors but none of them released.
Today after so many years Rafisahab is still in the heart of people.He was a great artist and great human being.
Day after tomorrow on 31July all over the world his death aniversary will be observed but I am posting my tribut today on occasion of my birthday.
I am not a professional writer so there are bound to be some mistakes but I have tried to write it honestly.
My heartfelt tribute to great singer.
Lakshmi K Tummala
As Shankar Jaikishan fans, we have all heard and read a lot about their knowledge and talent in music, their name and fame, their fundraising for great causes, from all sources available. But, very seldom do we hear about their inner character that defines the great human beings they were.
Many South Indian movie makers had the utmost admiration and respect for SJ who composed for their movies with huge success. Every one of them commended upon their professionalism and work ethics. Once SJ signed a contract, the producer could be rest assured that the work will get done on time and will meet with expectations beyond his imagination.
It is true that they commanded a very high remuneration for their work, but they never demanded it. It was the producer, who was desperate to have them sign for him, that hiked their fee. With SJ in his project, it was a breeze for the producer to have the lead actor and actress get on board. The high fee received for their work was shared generously with their musicians. There were times when a producer would sign SJ with a deposit and, later, meet with financial difficulties. Being very considerate of the situation, SJ would still complete their work and wait patiently to be paid whenever the producer was able to.
In a span of 38 years, from Barsaat to Gori, Shankar Jaikishan scored music for 185 movies. They worked with 67 lyricists, 46 male singers and 45 female singers. Throughout their career, SJ introduced several musicians, singers and lyricists to the music industry. It was through their encouragement that their assistant, Dattaram, turned into a full-fledged composer. With their hands full, they had also encouraged producers to sign Kalyanji-Anandji and R.D. Burman for their movies.
The composer duo maintained a great camaraderie with their peers and always had a good word for their work. Many a time, SJ would call up a fellow composer to congratulate on his/her work which you seldom see in the industry. Even after Jaikishan’s demise, when things were going against him, Shankar never uttered a word against the “defectors” and “backstabbers.”
The above mentioned virtues of Shankar Jaikishan are what made them superior to their peers, not only in their work but also in their character. Their policy was to, “Live and Let Live.” They will always be remembered for their benevolence.
Shankar composed music for more than 170 movies in his career spanning 39 years , starting from Barsat in 1949 till Gori his last movie. His brand Shankar Jaikishan won 9 Filmfare Awards and how many movies celebrated jubilees is not available. I am sure, the number must be more than 60.
As composer , Shankar was very particular about having rich orchestra, perhaps an habit he picked up from his patron film maker Raj Kapoor, who visualized movies larger than life. To substantiate my point, I wish to cite the example of a few songs from Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai.
Here is a movie, Shankar felt had no scope for music at all, and later scored one of their finest albums for a movie shot mostly in a dacoits den. This movie has 9 songs, and each song is such a rich experience in audio experience. This movie was released in 1960, which means the recording was done before that.
With such primitive recording equipment and facilities, they created such priceless gems, that one fails to visualize what magic they could have created in modern times.
Let’s take a look at the songs :
1 . Mera naam raju gharaana anaam..Movie opens with this song, shot in the vast expanse of Ganga in Haridwar . Just listen to the orchestra, melody and the energy. What a way to open the movie.
2.Begani Shaadi Mein Abdulla Diwana: Here is a fun song which has almost become a popular idiom. Absolutely energetic music and fun filled flow of melody.
3. Hoton pe Sachaai rehti hai: Here is one of the finest songs which portrays the ethos of what India is all about. The prelude for this song begins with a rich play of dafli..and then begins the song on a quite note..picks up with use of Sitar which pull at your heart strings..
4. Kya hua ye mujhe kya pata jaane kyun…A super energetic dance number for Padmini and Chanchal..what can I say about this song. Accordion and rhythm with bongos and percussion of maracas,
5.Ho Maine pyar kiya hoye hoye kya zulm kiya: Here is another very high voltage sensuous number, picturised on Padmini.
6. O Basanti pavan pagal : This pathos number has exceptionally rich orchestra especially, in the end, when Raj Kapoor returns and Padmini dances in front of Goddess Bhavani..My God, simply unbelievable and beyond words .
7. Hai aag hamare seene mein: This is a song with perhaps the maximum number of leading playback singers in one song. Full of energy and a flow which goes up in scale as it progresses. The use of rhythm and mandolin notes is exceptional, to say the least.
8. Pyar Karle nai te phaansi chad jaayega: Here is a classic song which sums up the essence of the story which preaches surrender of arms, and leading a life of honour. Simple and very touching song.
9. Aa Ab Laut chale: This song is the mother of all large screen songs. So much has been written about its orchestra and chorus, that I need not add anything more.
This is music, which elevates a simple story to the skies and makes it a super duper hit.
If this is not larger than life, then what is! This is not the only movie, there are 10s of such great movies with simply out of the world music !!
Shankar The Great !!
It all began when Shankar Singh Ramsingh, as a young teen, dropped out of school and went on in search of a career in music. Having a formal training in the tabla, Shankar joined a theater group headed by Satyanarayan and Hemavathi. The group travelled far and wide, entertaining music lovers, and ended up in Mumbai, the entertainment capital of the country. With his insatiable desire to perform on stage, Shankar soon landed a job at Prithvi Theater founded by Prthvi Raj Kappor. He would play the tabla for the shows and do all kind of odd jobs around. ” Papa Ji” as Prithviraj Kapoor was fondly referred to. He soon met Jaikishan Dahyabhai Panchal, his business partner and bosom buddy, and the rest as you know is “history.”
Together with Jai, Shankar created, Shankar Jaikishan, the most successful banner in the history of Indian music industry. Theirs was an unique relationship that lasted all their life. Their minds worked on the same wavelength to create the most beautiful and memorable music. They had a long association with lyricists Shailendra and Hasrat Jaipuri. But, after a stupendous career, they lost Shailendra and within a few years, Jai also passed on. This shattered Shankar altogether. The creative genius lost his soul, but kept the banner running for sixteen more years against turbulent conditions created by some negative forces in the industry. He weathered all storms and, finally, in 1987, Shankar too breathed his last, leaving a lasting legacy built lovingly with Jaikishan.
Photo courtesy: Shankar Anella, grand nephew of the legendary Shankar.
Shanker ( Jaikishen ), rehearsing with Lata Mangeshkar for the song ” Aa, aa bhi jaa… ”
14th January 1961 !
By romesh dalal <email@example.com>
I am a die-hard fan of Shankar-Jaikishan Music and their huge contribution to Bollywood Film Industry. NASHAUD-SAHEB enjoyed Shankar-Jaikishan’s music so much for that he said “SHANKAR-JAIKISHEN WERE NOT MUSICIAN BUT THEY WERE SIMPLY JUST MAGNIFICIENCE MAGICIAN”. How true it is when we listened to their music and songs. Raj Kapoor had an unerring eye for talent across all fields of cinema. He had spotted Shankar and Jaikishan who were musicians with Prithvi Theatres and later they were assistants to Ram Ganguly. As assistants to Ram Ganguly, they had given a huge musical contribution to the first RK film production AAG. After that SJ as music director team came on the scene in 1948 for the RK banner film BARSAAT. BARSAAT created a huge musical miracle on the Hindi film screen. As a matter fact, Raj Kapoor was very knowledgeable about various musical instruments and music. We had witnessed this talent in Raj Kapoor’s films were we enjoyed seeing him playing different musical instruments. Barsaat – a phenomenon A classic film by Raj Kapoor’s “BARSAAT” started that trend of filmy revolution. In this revolution the major contribution was made by Shanker – Jaikishan in Hindi film industry. Their fresh tunes and orchestration lead the paradigm shift from the then prevailing monotonous thekas and droning cadences. The music of “BARSAAT” opened up yet another channel for making money – the ‘records’ broke the ‘records’ of earning money independent of the film. Legend has it that the composer of “ANDAZ” (released in the same year) – Naushad went to its producer – Mehboob Khan for celebrating the huge success of his film “ANDAZ” songs. It was raining then and Mehboob Khan, looking out of the window said to Naushad, ‘Aapke Gaanon ko to ‘Barsaat’ ne dho dala’! This was the comment made by Mehboob Khan after a huge success of BARSAAT. So this was the power of SJ music in India right after our independence in 1947. Barsaat made NIMMI a Super Heroin It was Raj Kapoor, who named Nimmi when he introduced her in Barsaat. How she got selected for Barsaat is an interesting story. Nimmi came from Lahore with her aunt and was staying with Sardar Akhtar and Mehboob Khan. Mehboob Khan’s Andaaz was almost complete and Raj Kapoor who was acting in the film, had launched Barsaat. Raj Kapoor was in search of a new face for the role. Being a fastidious man, he had already rejected many girls. Nimmi had gone with Sardar Akhtar on the sets of Andaaz and was sitting besides Nargis’ mother Jaddanbai. Raj Kapoor came up to Jaddanbai, wished her and then looked at Nimmi. Nimmi felt so shy that she could barely acknowledge him. Raj Kapoor returned to the floor and asked Mehboobsaab about Nimmi. Raj Kapoor told Mehboobsaab, ‘I want this girl for my film.’ Nimmi didn’t know what to do. She wanted to accept the offer but was worried about her grandmother’s reaction. So Sardar Akhtar called her grandmother. Surprisingly her grandmother agreed. So Nimmi was called for a screen test. She was given some dialogues, which she mouthed in an absolute trance. A round of applause brought her out of her stupor. The next thing Nimmi knew was that she had been chosen for Barsaat. Nimmi was deliriously happy and was cast opposite Premnath. Infact, Nimmi had the most extra ordinary relationship with Raj Kapoor. During the filming of Barsaat, a rakhi scene was being shot and Raj called out to Nimmi. ‘Nimmi do you know the meaning of rakhi? ` She nodded. ‘Okay, tie it on my wrist. From then on Nimmi became his rakhi sister all his life. As a matter fact, Nimmi was always given due respect by the entire Kapoor household. Surprisingly Jaikishan was only the 16 years old when he started this musical journey at the time of giving music for the first time as a music director with Shankar, in the Hindi film “Barsaat”. Shankar & Jaikishan explored & learned the right way to please the cinema mass right after this huge success. Before them, until that time, we had many famous, well known and good music directors of Hindi cinema, like Anil Biswas,Husnlal-Bhagatram, Khemchand Prakash, Roshan, Naushad, Ghulam Muhammad and so on. The old Hindi film music was good but it was not that appealing to mass audience. Very soon SJ realized that the film industry needed a boost to change the way music was played in those days. SJ immediately started executing their ideas, where they were the first one to introduce orchestra and duets songs in the Hindi films. That change made them instant hit. That journey started with BARSAAT where they followed the original Indian classical music. Shankar and Jaikishan had the vast knowledge about the use of different musical instruments. We have over the time, experienced that being played in their songs. It was also noticeable that every Hindi movie produced with SJ-MUSIC, provided a classical dance item with classical music. Between them, they had tremendous understanding about their musical work distribution that Shankar would do “the theme-song at RK” while Jaikishan would handle the background score. Shankar’s passion was the tabla and the classical dance compositions. He learnt the tabla fundamentals from Baba Nasir Khansahib. As we know, SHANKARJI was very knowledgeable on classical dances. Not only that but Shankar and Jaikishan loved the RAAGA Bhairavi. A touch of Bhairavi we experienced with the songs from Shree 420, “Mera joota hai Japani” and Ramaivya vastavaiyya”. Jaikishan loved Bhairavi so much that made him to name “Bhairavi” to his daughter. They made classical music and Ragas a backbone of their music. Soon they also proved to be outstanding in giving background music in their films. As we know, Jaikishan, in those days, was considered the expert in providing the background music for the films. Until present time, nobody has beaten Jaikishanji in providing that most soothing BACKGROUND MUSIC in the Hindi films. Shankar Jaikishan contributed a lot to the world of music in India right from the day they began working as music directors. Music composed by them was extensive. It was based on classical Indian music (‘Dil ek mandir hai’, ‘O basanti pawan pagal’) and even on western music (‘Sukoo sukoo’, ‘Raat ke hamsafar’). Their music was characterized by a special style. For the record, Shankar Jaikishan produced an album “ Raga Jazz Style” where they experimented: Raga Todi Raga Bhairav Raga Malkauns Raga Kalavati Raga Tilak Kamod Raga Mian Ki Malhar Raga Bairagi Raga Jaijaiwanti Raga Mishra Pilu Raga Shivranjani What else you expect from a music director! I rate SHANKAR-JAIKISHAN as the number-1 music director in the Hindi Film world. This composer duo was the most versatile through the 50s and 60s. From the Barasat hit “Hawa Main Udadta Jaye”, Aawara hit ’Ghar Aaya Mera Pardesi’ to classical songs in Basant Bahar and Seema, and I still bet no one can give the classical music like Aamrapli. In fact Shankar-Jaikishan used Indian Classical Ragas to compose most of their songs to mixed with the westernized tunes as experimented in “An Evening In Paris, Zuk Gaya Aasman, ’Aaj Kal Tere Mere Pyar Ki Charche Har Zabaan Par’ (Bramhachari)” songs. SJ could create a melody to suit any mood or emotion. They were masters in conducting orchestra. Accordion, Sitar, Mandolin, Sarod, Vina, Guitar, piano etc. were the special instruments used frequently in their music. SJ in their life span won as many as 9-Filmfare Awards out of a total of 150 Hindi movies (compared 6-Filmfare Awards out of 600 movies by LP). That is the highest number of awards ever won by any Bollywood music directors till present day. SJ won these Filmfare Awards for: Chori Chori (1956), Anari (1959), Dil Apana Aur Preet Parayi (1960), Professor (1962), Suraj(1966), Bramhachari (1968), Pehchan(1970), Mera Naam Joker (1971), and Beiman (1972). SJ used to give around 4 to 5, some time all, hit songs in each of their films. Particularly, SJ under RK-banner gave the most memorable and un-forgetful musical hits for the films like Barasat, Aah, Aawara, Boot Polish, Shree 420, Jis Desh Main Ganga Behati Hai, Sangam, Mera Naam Joker. The other hit songs of SJ music includes films like Halaku, Daag, Badshah, ZINDAGI, Aarzoo, Dil Ek Mandir, Hamrahi, Aai Milan Ki Bela, Suraj, Teesari Kasam, Love In Tokyo and many more. Noted Music Director Anu Malik (and Hasrat Jaipuri’s Nephew) says that Raj Kapoor had dug a well full of everlasting music and Shankar Jaikishan drew water out of it. Though SJ never approved their separation, the fact is that the two did started working separately in the mid-60s. The reason is attributed to the fact that Shankar introduced a new singer Sharda (famous for her song Titli Udi… in the movie SURAJ) much against the disagreement of Jaikishan. Further Shankar’s fondness for Sharda & Jaikishan’s inclination towards Lata Mangeshkar created differences between the two and in the mid-60s the split. How can we forget these famous Duo of composers who gave songs all the way from Jaan Pehchan ho (a melody still very famous in the west), Badan Pe Sitare (a tune that has been used in many songs in current Bollywood), Baharon Phool Barsao (a very nostalgic tune that is the only happy song ever to be created in the raga shivrangini), all the way to classical movies such as BASANT BAHAR. RASIK BALMA – IMPACT Rasik Balma song is from the old Hindi film Chori Chori (1956), which was based on Raga Shudh Kalyan. There is another song Chand Phir Nikla (Film: Paying Guest of 1957), which was composed by Maestro S.D.Burman. In fact, both of these two songs “ Rasik-Balama and Chand Nikala” sound so similar. These two songs were composed by two of the greatest Hindi film music directors of all time Shankar-Jaikishan and S.D. Burman respectively around the year 1956. It is surprising to note that both these music directors never composed any Hindi song based on Raga Hamsadhwani, a melodious South Indian classical raga. Both songs were composed independently by the above two music directors. Since both songs were composed on Raga Shudh Kalyan, both have the same bandishi or pakkad. And this is the reason why both songs sound so similar. In the background, a light rhythm of ghungaoos was played so as to enhance the beauty of both songs. There was no question of one being a copy of the other. In those golden years of 1950s, one could not even think of plagiarism, which unfortunately is rampant in some of the present day Hindi film-music. Both songs were brilliantly sung by the great Lata Mangeshkar. The immortal Lata Mangeshkar has stated that these two songs are two of the best songs of her career among her other favorite songs such as Aaja re pardesi (Film: Madhumati), Ayega aanewala (Film: Mahal) and Ye zindagi usiki hai (Film: Anarkali). Actually, when this song Rasik Balma was being picturized on actress Nargis, Nargis declared that she would not require any Glycerin on her eyes to emote for this song. After hearing the song, Nargis knew that there was no need to use Glycerin during the picturization of the song, since the great Lata Mangeshkar had already used her deep emotions while singing the song, and that was enough to create natural tears. Glycerin is normally used in the film industry to create tears artificially in the eyes of the actor or actress for sad scenes. From reliable sources, it is known that the above song Rasik Balma was composed by Jaikishan. Generally, the opening (sthaayi) of the song is set within a medium octave, but this song opens on a very high note. During recording, Lata Ji had pointed this out to Jaikishan Ji saying that people are going to blame her for singing this song at such a high pitch and people might say that they cannot even hum it! But the brilliant Jaikishan told Lata Mangeshkar that the beauty of this song lied entirely on singing it at a high pitch, and finally the song was sung at a high pitch and the rest is history. In 1956, from India, Lataji called Mehboob Khan, the famous Producer and Director of Oscar nominated Film: MOTHER INDIA who was undergoing a medical treatment in a hospital in Los Angeles in USA. At that time, Mehboob Khan told Lataji that he was very impatient to hear the melodious soulful song RASIK BALMA from Lataji herself over the phone, since the record of this song was not available in USA at that time. “Oh, Rasik Balma from Chori Chori…?” asked Lataji and she sang the entire song over the phone for Mehboob Khan. She sang this song over the telephone every single day while Mehboob Khan was recuperating in the Los Angeles hospital. Later, Mehboob Khan admitted how much this song had helped him recover faster from his illness. This proves the power of the song “Rasik Balma”, which could heal an ill person. There were many other great composers such as RD & SD Burman, O.P Nayyar, Laxmikant-Pyarelal, Naushad, Roshan, Khayyam etc. When we analyzed these music directors’ musical contribution on the scale of versatility, they perhaps would be nowhere close to Shankar Jaikishan. If RD Burman gave music to movies like Yadon Ki Baraat, Kati Patang and Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin, there isn’t a single movie in which he gave classical numbers. Same goes for SD Burman who made some very good semi-classical and classical numbers but had a better success in making more western numbers such as “Rangeela-re” after RD Burman started to assist him. Naushad and Khayyam definitely had very good classical numbers but not a lot of western mixed numbers. As far as I remember most Semi Classical Songs Of Shankar Jaikishan are among the Best in the Hindi film industry. If you were knowledgeable in the Indian Classical music, you would be able to tell the difference between music that is made today compared to the music that was made in 50s and 60s. 50s and 60s definitely had better music that 70s and later because Shankar Jaikishan used massive orchestra’s that gave you songs that were truly special such as Likhe Jo Khat Tujhe, Dil Ke Jharokhe Mein, Kaun Hai Jo Sapno Mein Aaya (a song that had a tune from Elvis Presley’ song but sounded much better with the type of composition SJ converted it into). The song Awara Hoon was very famous in countries like Russia, England and France because European type of music. If anyone ever heard Scottish music you would be surprised to hear how much it resembles the song Dil Ki Nazar Se from the movie Anari. As far as I know AR Rehman is below every music director from the old Bollywood. The problem is that no MUSIC composer today including Rehman knows how to make a raga-based mixed composition. We are pretty much forgetting our own heritage and going after music played in the west. SJ proved that what a fusion between classical and western can do in songs like Baharon Phool Barsao (Raga Shivrangini) and Yaad Na Jaye Beete Dino Ki (Raga Kirwani). A person who is trained in western music would definitely be able to identify the jazz, and rock and roll style in Shankar Jaikishan compositions. A classical musician or singer will be able to identify the Raga on which any of SJ compositions would be based but not from Rehman’s music because there is no Raga in his music just Rhythms and so called “western melody” that he hasn’t even mastered properly. CULTURAL IMPACT I have done detailed research on how the Hindi-Film Music influenced the World. Indian cinema, with its characteristic film music, has not only spread all over Indian society, but also been on the forefront of the spread of India’s culture around the world. In Britain, Hindi film songs are heard in restaurants, on radio, and TV-channels, dedicated to Asian music. In Greece the genre of indoprepi sprang from Hindi film music while in Indonesia dangdut singers like Ellya Khadam, Rhoma Irama and Mansyur S., have reworked Hindi songs for Indonesian audiences. In France, the band Les Rita Mitsouko used Bollywood influences in their music video for “Le petit train” and French singer Pascal of Bollywood popularized filmy music by covering songs such as “Zindagi Ek Safar Hai Suhana“. In Nigeria Bandiri music—a combination of Sufi lyrics and Bollywood-style music—has become popular among Hausa youth. Hindi film music has also been combined with local styles in the Caribbeanto form “chutney music“. Recently I was touring in Marrakesh, a big city in MOROCCO, where I found local people were talking to me in Hindi and inquiring about SHAHRUKH KHAN. They were also asking me about the film “KABHI KHUSHI KABHI GAM”. Then I noticed that there is a big Cinema Theater showing only HINDI FILMS in a regular show. I was just stunned to learn that Moroccans also enjoy the Hindi Films & Music just like Indians. Now I can say with confidence that Hindi films have conquered the great part of the world. Bollywood leads the world in viewer numbers as well as film-production volumes. Soviet Russia was a key part of that story. Russians have been enjoying popular Indian melodrama and musicals since the first festival of Indian films in Moscow in 1954. This delegation was conducted by Raj Kapoor. This was the occasion for Russians and the world to listen to Shankar-Jaikishan’s music for the first time out side of India. In fact, Russian box office statistics suggest that Indian movies were more popular than any other foreign films shown in the Soviet Union. In the period between 1954 and 1989, for example, while 41-American and 38-French movies attained “blockbuster” status (“blockbuster” defined as selling more than 20-million tickets) in the Soviet Union, 50-Indian movies did the same. Fascination with Hindi Songs The number of songs that were adapted by the foreign countries from Hindi movies is considerable. From the 111 movies known to have come, as well as from others whose importation is uncertain, 105 Greek renditions were identified. Many came from the best-known Hindi movies that are from Awaara, Shree 420, Mother India, Ghar Sansaar, Laajwanti, and Aan. Many Hindi songs engendered duplicates, triplicates, and quadruplicates. For example, “Pyar Hua Ikrar Hua” (Shree 420) and “Gao Tarane Man Ke” (Aan) have four renditions, “Unchhi, Unchhi Dunia Ki Diware…” (Naagin) and “Aa Jao TaRapte Hai Arman” (Awaara) has three. At least 10 others have duplicates. Of all songs, 57 (55%) have a great similarity with pre-existing songs; 25 (24%) deviate significantly from the originals, 16 (16%) are partial renditions, where other melodies are mixed with Hindi, and 5 (5%) use only some musical bars. In overseas countries most Hindi songs copies were temporary hits or remained obscure. However, 11 were still known among the general public in 1998, about 35 years later. The best remembered in the 1990s were: “Aa Jao TaRapte Hai Arman” from Awaara, one of three renditions of this song by Stellios Kazantzidis; “kardia mou kaimeni” (my poor heart –“Dunia Me Ham Aaye” from Mother India), “auti i nyxta menei” (this night remains — Ulfat Ka Saaz Chhedo from the 1953 MehboobKhan’s Aurat), “oso axizeis esy” (as much as you are worth — “Dunia Walon Se Duur” from Ujaala”). In foreign countries mainly in Middle East and Greece, Mother India, Awaara, and other movies established Nargis as the great priestess of the family dramas, with Madhubala a close second. The ability of these heroines to express pain made the beautiful and haunting songs that they sang instant hits. It was only natural that the emotions of the poor Greeks would be expressed through those very same melodies. Thus, starting in 1959, Greek-language renditions of many songs appeared. As the above article implies, the transformed songs had a big problem: Plagiarism. With few exceptions, the songs appeared as creations of at least 26 Greek musicians. The copying was systematic. Some Greek-musicians copied some Hindi songs on reel tape recorders directly from movie theaters, and in other cases, music companies ordered records from India and distributed them to willing people for copying. The names of Naushad Ali, Shankar-Jaikishan, and Chitalkar Ramachandra were never heard in Greece. When India conquered Greece Here’s a superbly researched article from World Bank economist Helen Abadzi on Greek songs that were inspired from Hindi film songs. Ms. Abadzi writes: The most Hindi movies were considered working-class fare. They had much less appeal for the middle-class, which looked westward for entertainment, wanted more humor, and was not plagued by the social dilemmas of the poor and the limited solutions available to the heroines. Nevertheless, many saw the Hindi masterpiece movies. In February 1960, Mother India premiered without much advertisement in Kotopouli, a downtown theater in Greece, on a snowy day. The first few curious spectators were so moved by watching this movie in the theater that they stopped strangers on the way out and told them not to miss that “social gospel”. Four hours later, a waiting moviegoers line two city blocks long had formed, and the movie played in some Greek town or other at least for the next 10 years. I can’t pay enough tribute to Shankar-Jaikishan, as their creation can never be reviewed within any human domain – except that it can only be felt; and we, as human being, can always take advantage to listen to their divine tunes. I always refer to them as two angels who visited this world, and left their divine impression with mankind forever. Shankar Jaikishan remains an enigma for all basically because two different people with completely different backgrounds, different natures, different attitudes, and different temperament but together they created the most harmonious, highly original and unparalleled creative music in the annals of Bollywood Film history. This is the most astounding and intriguing aspect of their creation. Hydrogen and oxygen are two different elements. They have their own properties and their own original existence. But when they come together they have created something entirely different from both their original character…Water! Water is something so unique that nothing equals it in the entire creations of any chemical element. Water is life giving, without water there would be no life. Similarly, Shankar Jaikishan were the two different entities; together they created water like magic. Without each other, they are like hydrogen and oxygen, however much they wanted to, they individually could never create the magic called water. They needed each other to do it. This is the story of Shankar Jaikishan. But, as human beings what they are, they would like to know what created this magic? Who is more creative? Who is more talented? Whose contribution is more in creating the magic? That is why we have to touch upon the most painful and least understood, least known aspect of their creations, who created what? At the end, I just would like to add my comment on the current status of Bollywood: However, with the death of stalwart composers like S.D. Burman, C. Ramchandra, Naushad, Madan Mohan, Salil Chaudhary, O.P. Nayyar, Roshan, Ghulam Mohammad, Jaidev and Shankar-Jaikishan, the quality of the Hindi music declined. The standard of lyrics nosedived with the death of Sahir, Shakeel, Rajender Krishan, Shailendera, Hasrat Jaipuri, Raja Mehndi Ali Khan etc. The untimely death of Rafi, Mukesh, Manna Dey, Mahendra Kapoor, Kishore and Talat created a huge void, which the successor singers could not fill up. Indian film music is progressing ahead but without any meaningful tunes or lyrics or music. What we experience now a days, is loud instrumental noise, western rhythm, and meaningless wordings in film songs. Rarely we hear some good music with lyrics.
शैलेन्द्र और जयकिशन के जाने के बाद उन्हें और शंकर को को क्यों नहीं मिला राजकपूर के साथ ज़्यादा काम, बता रहे हैं हसरत जयपुरी साहब। इसके अलावा और भी कई विवादस्पद मुद्दों पर हसरत साहब की अंदरूनी बेबाक राय।
These cuttings Courtesy : ज़ेड एच
Films that were signed before Sep 1971 but were not released by then:
1. Seema (Simi-Kabir-Rakesh-Bharati)
2. Albela (Mehmood-Namrata)
3. Chori Chori (new) (Sanjay-Radha-Jeetendra)
4. Beimaan (Manoj-Raakhee)
5. Love in Bombay (Joy-Waheeda-Kishore. produced by Shubir Mukerji)
6. Yaar Mera (Jeetendra-Raakhee)
7. Lal Patthar (Raaj Kumar-Hema Malini-Raakhee-Vinod Mehra)
8. Ankhon Ankhon Mein (Rakesh-Raakhee)
9. Daman Aur Aag (Sanjay-Saira)
10. Ankh Michouli (Rakesh-Bharati)
11. Mera Vachan Geeta Ki Qasam (Sanjay-Saira)
12. Nagina (Sanjay-Leena)
13. Dhoop Chhaon (Sanjeev-Hema. Yogita added much later due to problems between Sanjeev and Hema)
14. Bandagi (Vinod Mehra-Sandhya Roy)
15. The Gold Medal (started with Rajendra Kumar-Saira and later changed to Jeetendra-Raakhee)
16. Mehfil (Jeetendra-Sadhana , later replaced by Anil Dhawan)
17. Naina (Shashi-Rajashree. Moushumi added later)
18. Aan Baan (Rajendra-Raakhee)
19. Resham Ki Dori (Rajesh Khanna-Saira. Rajesh Khanna was later replaced by Dharmendra who was closed to Atmaram)
20. International Crook (Dharmendra-Saira)
21. Archana (Directed by Satpal, Bhappi Sonie’s assistant.
21. Pyar Ka Rishta (Sameer-Mumtaz-Shatrughan-Vinod Khanna)
23. Rivaaj (First production of KC Bokadia. Sanjeev-Mala)
24. Dur Nahin Manzil (Started with Roshan who composed the titled song that was retained. Also, initially this one had Sanjeev-Nutan but Nutan was replaced by Reshma, Bindu’s sister)
25. Insaniyat (Shashi-Madhu)
26. Dil daulat Duniya (Rajesh Khanna-Sadhana)
Films that never saw completion but were on hand in 1971:
1. Hero (launched by Sham Behl, of Gold Medal/Duniya with Sunil Dutt)
2. Kabhi Daman Kabhi Phool (Vinod Khanna-Anupama)
3. Kora Kagaz (Rajesh Khanna-Hema Malini; not the same one that was released later in 1973)
4. Sindoor (Produced by Sant Singh; directed by Kishore Sahu. Jeetendra-Saira)
5. Sadiyonse Hai Pyar (Produced by RK’s cousin Vijay Kapoor. Shashi Kapoor- Saira Banu)
6. Tu Payal Main Geet (Directed by Kanak Mishra. Shashi Kapoor- Saira Banu)
7. Mahaan (Directed by Sultan Ahmad. Sanjeev Kumar-Mumtaz. Not the same as AB’s Mahaan)
8. Aar Paar (Tanuja-Romesh Sharma)
9. Untitled film (Directed by T. Prakash Rao. Dilip Kumar-Saira with one song recorded by Jaikishan in Asha’s voice)
10. Ganga Ki Kasam (Produced by Pachhi)
11. Karishma (Randhir Kapoor in the lead)
12. Nain Mile Chain Kahan
14. Sun re Balam
Announced before Sep 1971 but vanished from the radar after sep 1971
1. Seeta Aur Geeta
2, Kailash/Prem Chopra’s untitled (later named Nafrat)
Announced after Jaikishan’s demise but never released or completed:
1) Watan (Sunil Dutt, Sanjay Khan, Rekha, Premnath; Director Kanak Misra)
2) Azmaaish (Sanjay Khan, Director: Kanak Misra)
3) Baby Hindustan (Director: Basu Chatterji)
4) Gunahgaar (RaajKumar. Producer/Director: Govind Saraiyya. Had a Lata-Manna Duet)
5) Mere Desh ki Dharti (Producer: Kewal P. Kashyap)
6) Talaaq (Parikshit Sahni)
7) Apmaan (Navin Nischal, Rakesh Roshan)
8) Jugal Jodi (Asrani-Deven Verma)
9) Pehla Pehla Pyar (Mumtaz International. Saira-Shashi Kapoor)
11) Gulzar Singh’s untitled (Shashi Kapoor)
Note that Jungle Mein Mangal was a quickie that started after the producer Rajendra Bhatia released Paraya Dhan and was not signed before Sep 1971.
That sad Wednesday afternoon, a little after he died, the radio sang :
“Aye mere dil kahin aur chal
gham ki duniya se dil bhar gaya
dhoondle ab koi ghar naya“.
It was Shailendra’s own lyric from `Daag’. He, too, had just told his weary heart : “I am full of the world’s sorrows. Let me seek a new home!”.
At the nursing home where he lay, we, his close friends, tried vainly to hold back our tears. Twenty years is a long time to know anyone, particularly in the film industry where “friendships” are made and broken easily, too easily.
Twenty years ago, we – a small group of people – had started from nothing. We had dreams, and nothing else, to sustain us. We had stood together, to the surprise and possibly dismay of many, and together we had worked out a common destiny. And today, without warning, death has laid an icy hand on one of us.
“Dhoond le ab koi ghar naya.”. He had done it.
For “Teesri Kasam” his own production, he had written :
“Sajan re jhoot mat bolo, khuda ke paas jana hai, na haathi hai na ghoda hai, vahaan paidal his jaana hai.”
True enough. We all have to go on foot. There will be no elephants to carry us, no horses, no Impalas. Poets have to go there when the call comes and ordinary men too.
But do the poets of the world, true creative artistes, really die?
Born and brought up a man of the people, Shailendra remained that all his life. His lyrics, like he himself, were simple, and had depth. And what a variety! He could dash off a frothy love lyric, he could compose a deeply philosophical poem. He wrote of sadness, gaiety, resignation, despair, hope.
“Ye poorab hai, poorab wale, har jaan ki keemat jaante hain“, he said, in the theme song of `Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai’. That was the pariot. “Awara hoon“, he sang, in a manner at once, light-hearted and serious. The song became world famous. And it was the same patriot who laughingly wrote “Mera joota hai Japani” in `Shri 420′.
When Shailendra joined our fold – at the time of Raj Kapoor was making “Barsaat” – it was with two lyrics he had ready – “Barsaat mein humse mile tum” and “Patli kamar hai“. He said goodbye to the R.K. Banner, again with two lyrics, for “Mera Naam Joker”. In between, from his work done not only for us – Shanker and myself – but for other composers, I can name scores of lovely lyrics, songs which have been on everyone’s lips.
By the way, Shailendra has written lyrics for all films for which my partner Shanker and I have composed the music with the exception of `College Girl’ and `Aarzoo’. In the latter film, he didn’t work with us because he was ill.
Shanker and I met Shailendra for the first time twenty years ago. Raj Kapoor introduced us at his office which was then at Famous Studios, Mahalaxmi. Shailendra had a job in the railway workshop at Parel. He wrote poetry in his spare time. One of his poems – “Jalta hai Punjab” – moved Raj Kapoor so much he wanted to put it in `Aag’. But Shailendra was then not keen on contributing lyrics to films. He later changed his mind and joined us for `Barsaat’.
The last time I ever saw him in good health was at Rajkamal studios about a month ago where I was doing some back-ground music recording. And you know what he was saying? Despite all the difficulties he had experienced in producing `Teesri Kasam’ he wanted to launch another film!
In the early days, Shailendra was living in a one room tenement at Parel. After `Barsaat’, my partner had been offered our first contract outside R.K. ( the film was Mr. Dalsukh Pancholi’s `Nagina’) and wanting to persuade Shailendra to write the lyrics, I visited him for the first time at his home. Like us, he was quite needy then, but his work caught on quickly and he became much sought after. His address had a few changes – from somewhere, Parel, to `Rim Jhim’, his own home at Khar, but all along the man himself never changed.
He was intelligent, very gentle, full of knowledge and very sensitive. His love of poetry and literature was paramount. Tagore was an early favourite as also Khalil Gibran. He was always nice company, whether you were discussing poetry or politics. He was very emotional and wept when something moved him. When he was composing a lyric, he would walk restlessly about the room. He loved writing on the beach. From the early days, he smoked incessantly – I wish he had been more careful.
He was young – only 43. Why did he have to go that early and with so much mental suffering?
In the music room of Shanker-Jaikishan at our homes where he was so welcome, there will be a void. There will be a bigger void in our hearts.
“Dhoond le ab koi ghar naya…”.
Goodbye, my friend.
`FILMFARE’ – JANUARY 20, 1967
This is courtesy : Jay Subramanyam who composed it on Jan 12, 2009 at 1:54 PM
💐 Shankar Jaikishan & Kishore Kumar 🎂
Shankar-Jaikishen (SJ): The music director duo who revolutionized the very definition of Hindi film music with their path-breaking music and tunes… Compiled by Suresh Sarvaiya
Kishore Kumar: The genius actor-singer who created his own path and carved a place in the Hindi film music scene which people cannot even dream of achieving…
The association of Shankar Jaikishan with Kishore Kumar has various interesting aspects. Shankar Jaikishan (S-J), who rarely used Kishore. Trivia has it that Kishore Kumar was not the original choice for lead & that some songs had already been recorded when he joined the cast of movie Shararat (1959). Though Kishore had already sung numbers like ‘Dukhi man mere
sun mera kahena….’ for sad occasions, the second antara of this song makes you feel that it needed Rafi’s high-pitch.
Surprisingly no song in the first 8 years of mutual co-existance in the music kingdom of SJ, 18 songs in the next 13 years of association and then, 87 songs in last 17 years. Another intriguing part is, for the first 13 years, SJ were the uncrowned king of Hindi film music and Kishore Kumar a non-considerate in playback singing and in the next 17 years, well, almost vice versa. “Almost” is because Jaikishen – the more prominent of the duo, died in 1971, and upto 1986, Shankar single handedly kept the S-J flag flying. As the musical parallelism goes, many still believe, it was Jaikishen with whom the camaraderie of Kishore would have blended better- and the proof was there with “Zindagi ek safar hai suhana”, the chartbuster Jaikishen had made with Kishore just months after the former passed away. But the fact is, out of 105 songs Kishore recorded under SJ baton, almost 70 songs came for Shankar only, owing to Jaikishen’s early demise.
After departure of Jsikishan, it started gradual decline of Shankar amongst mainstream cinema. After giving music to almost 350 movies, the exhaustion showed With no Jaikishen, Shankar tried to put his foothold intact with occasional hits in Resham Ki Dori (1974), Sanyasi (1975) and Do Jhoot (1975). Many of Shankar’s hits that time came with Kishore like “Chhatri na khol” (Do Jhoot), “Mere dil mein tu hi tu hai” (International Crook), “Chamka paseena” (Resham ki Dori) and “Tu jahan main wahan”(Garm khoon). Both Shankar and Kishore demised in 1987. While one was given a superstar farewell, the other went away quietly.
Interestingly they even made their debut around the same time – Shankar
Jaikishen’s debut film as independent music directors was R K Films’ Barsaat which released in 1949 & Kishore Kumar’s debut film as an actor and a playback singer (sang for Dev Anand) was Ziddi which released in 1948…
But, the fact remains that Shankar Jaikishen were amongst the greatest music directors in Indian Cinema and Kishore Kumar was one of the greatest playback singers. Although their peak periods don’t match, in spite of being contemporaries, they did give us some brilliant output together.
New Delhi, Krorepati, Begunaah, Rangoli and Shararat are the five films for which Shankar-Jaikishen worked with Kishore Kumar where he acted and sang his own songs and what beautiful music they created by this combination.
Here are some gems by SJ & Kishore Da (list may be vary with individual choice) –
* Nakhrewali….. – New Delhi (1956)
* Chhotisi yeh duniya – Rangoli (1962)
* Rangoli sajaao – Rangoli (1962)
* Munne ki amma yeh to bata…’ – Tum
Haseen Main Jawaan (1968)
* Humlog hai aise deewane – Umang (1970)
* Geet gata hoon main – Lal Patthar (1971)
* Jaane anjaane log mile – Jaane Anjaane
* Bhanwre ki gunjan – Kal aaj aur kal (1971)
* Zindagi ek safar hai – Andaaz (1971)
* Saath mein pyara saathi – Dil Daulat
* Kehta hai dil o mere – Chorni (1980)
Compiled by Suresh Sarvaiya
Mukeshji , was my neighbor He lived in the 7th floor & I am in the 6th floor .
We used to meet all the time , in the lift , compound of the building …here & there .
He was a very kind , friendly person . He will chase all your blues away by his pep talk & cheerful attitude .
We had a number of songs together . most of them hits , each recording , a fun phhmusical experience .
When I started my music direction , he asks me , ‘Shardaji , when are you going to call me?
I say , ‘sure , sure , Mukeshji , where can I go ,if I dont call you ? But you know , mine are not big budget movies
He says , ‘Did I say anything about it?
Recording is fixed , He comes to my flat for rehearsal & comes to the recording , sings the song , entertains everyone by his talk , takes the envelope & goes . What simplicity& humane nature !
Song , ‘Naari kaisi shaan hai teri , in film ‘Maa bahen aur biwi …More songs recorded later .in film ‘Maila aanchal & some others …
His whole family was very friendly with me & still is . .We used to have parties & get togethers quite often .
Mrs Mukesh was one of my closest friend . She understood all my pains &pangs which had become my routine companions .She will give me doses of encouragement & will help me pass thro the ordeals .
She would know when I was going to go on depression & she would make a telephone call & tell me to come up .
Then she will start talking to me in such a manner , that I will forget about my pain .
She would read my palms . She said , you will be very famous & liked by many , But it will all come with great difficulty .You will also have lot of enemies , who will never leave you . Be prepared .
When I shifted in this building , Mukeshji was staying in a small studio apartment , opposite to my place .
They shifted in this building few months after I came here to live . We became friendly after that & slowly mrs Mulkesh & me became very close..
She respected Shanker Jaikishen a lot , mainly Shankerji .
She told me , there was a time, they had to face lot of difficulties , Mukeshji did not have any work for a long time & they were facing financial crunch . No musicdirector was calling him .
She said at that time Shankerji took him to sing a song for movie Yehudi . She said Dileepkumar sab did not want Mukeshji to sing ,He wanted Rafi sab to sing this song . On the recording day he got so upset that Shankerji had brought Mukeshji to sing that he left the recording studio in a huff
. The producer also did not want Mukeshji . The opposition was very strong .
But Shankerji had decided that Mukeshji will sing this song & he stood strong & recorded the song going against , the producer , hero & many others .This was Shankerji,s deewanapan .
And the song made history & Mukeshji bounced back to reach the skies .
Ye mera diwanapan hai …….One of the greatest song of Mukeshji.
And Dileep sab said ‘Wah , Shankerji , maangaye.’
Mrs Mukesh told me’ it is Shankerji who rescued us & gave us a new life ..
Shankerji , was not a dogle , who will bend this way & that way according to the situation , He had a strong mind & if he made a decision noone can make him change his mind .. unless ofcourse he himself wanted it .He will know better than you as-to how far you can reach .
When he makes you sing , you will come to know how much you are capable of. He will create a new height you would have never dreamt of & take you there .Then you will come to know , you had it in you to reach this height . If you have a voice , can sing S R G M in tune , he will create a great tune which will be perfect for you , you can be sure & presto , we will have a great singer .
Any singer , with limited talent or unlimited talent Shankerji can bring out hit songs from him/her .He will not worry about the limitations,,as long as his hands & brain work no need to worry about that .You can be sure you will get a gem .
If Shankerji works year after year with one singer bringing out hunderds of hits , who will want to bother about limitations of that singer ?
Mukeshji was also not a very versetile singer . He also had limitations with limited range . It is not his cup of tea to sing fast numbers , classicals with alaps & bring out tedhe medhe harkaten . Any other singer would have been handicapped by this . But not Mukeshji . . He has to just bring out his voice …….enough to floor any one … the listeners, hearts will melt , the heads will go to the clouds , the whole world will be forgotten … Who wants alaaps or murkhian ?
And do we have to say what magic Shankerji could bring with him ?
Shankerji , the genius working with extra special love , care & concern will spin & spin magic after magic bringing barrels & barrels of wonders with Mukeshji .The best & the peerless of Mukeshji come out with Shankerji.s tunes.
His specially made Mukesh tunes which fitted Mukeshji like a glove will carry any listener above the 7 clouds .
All those ‘Mai Raju , mai beimaan songs & those confessing , mai anadi songs , the heart pulling ‘Dost dost na raha & calling out , ‘Aa ab laut chalein .. & all other numerous hits were composed mainly keeping in mind , Mukesh mantra ….. And all thro his musical journey Shankerji composed songs & songs , one after the other , gem after gem keeping in mind that this is Mukesh song .When I had watched him compose Mukeshji.s songs I used to get so wonder struck that I would think is this Shankerji or Mukeshji , singing these lines .You can as well say Shankerji got possessed with Mukesh & he became Mukesh whenever he composed a Mukesh song …& he experienced each & every sigh & intonation of Mukeshji & made the tunes bringing out a magnificent Mukesh …….not one or two , but hundreds ……….
True Mukeshji had sung numerous hits with all other M D s , but Shanker Jaikishen Wala Mukeshji is something beyond bounds …unmatched & unparalleled & out of the world.
Most of mukesh S J songs were composed by Shankerji . Jai sab also made many songs for Mukeshji , but not as many as Shankerji . Though Jai sab & Mukeshji were great friends Jai sab preferred Rafi sab more , probably his style suited Rafisab more….
Time came , Shankerji was left alone , his soulmate left him abruptly …….
Gloomy days dragging on I get a severe shock , when I heard that Mukeshji took L P to R K ….
…I could not believe my ears.
Shankerji tells me , yes …..
God … how could this be …It is not possible .. .. no … no .. no….l
Mukeshji , what had got into you ?
Shankar Jaikishan(also known as S-J), were a popular and successful Indian composer duo of the Hindi film industry, working together from 1949 to 1971. They are considered to be two of the best music directors of the Hindi film industry. Later, Shankar continued to function as a Music Director alone, still giving music under the banner Shankar-Jaikishan, till 1987.
Shankar-Jaikishan, along with other artists, composed “everlasting” and “immortal melodies” in the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s. Their best work was noted for being “raga-based and having both lilt and sonority”.Early years
Shankar Singh s/o ram singh (15 October 1922 – 26 April 1987) was from Hyderabad. During his formative years, Shankar played the tabla and learned the art formally from Baba Nasir Khansahib. For many years, Shankar studied as a disciple of the legendary composer Khawaja Khurshid Anwar, in whose orchestra he performed. As per latest knowledge un-earthed by SJ Fans Association International (SJFAI), contrary to the adverse propaganda that he was illiterate and never went to school, as per his surviving close relatives (families of his sisters), this is not true. In fact, Shankar had studied at Hyderabad and had passed 10th class, before moving to Bombay. A 10th class pass of pre-independence era cannot be considered to be illiterate by any means.
Shankar started his career with a theater group run by Satyanarayan and Hemawati, before shifting to Prithvi Theatre where he played tabla and performed some minor roles in plays. It was at Prithvi Theatre that he learnt to play and mastered several other instruments like Sitar, Accordion and Piano etc. Besides his work at Prithvi Theatre, he also started working as an assistant to the leading composer duo of Husnlal Bhagatram and nurtured the ambition of becoming an independent music director.Jaikishan
Jaikishan Dayabhai Panchal (4 November 1929 – 12 September 1971) belonged to Bansda (Vansada), Gujarat. Jaikishan was adept at playing the harmonium. Subsequently, he obtained his musical lessons from Sangeet Visharad Wadilalji and later from Prem Shankar Nayak. After moving to Mumbai, he became a disciple of Vinayak Tambe.Formation of the composer duo
Apart from working at Prithvi Theatre, Shankar used to frequently visit the office of a Gujrati director Chandravadan Bhatt who had promised Shankar a break as a Music Director when he produced a film. It was outside the office of Bhatt that Shankar saw Jaikishan a number of times. One day, he started a conversation and discovered that Jaikishan was a harmonium player, and that he too was visiting the same producer in search of work. Shankar later recollected that they developed a liking for each other and it was he who then and there assured Jaikishan of the job of a Harmonium player at Prithvi Theatre (without asking Prithviraj Kapoor, fondly referred to as ‘Papaji’). Papaji honoured Shankar’s selection and gladly accepted Jaikishan as a Harmonium player at Prithvi. Soon, the two of them developed very close friendship to the extent that the people started referring to them as ‘Ram-Lakshman ki jodi’ and by several similar-meaning nicknames. Apart from following their musical pursuits, they also used to play significant roles in various plays including the famous play “Pathan”.
While working in Prithvi Theatre, Shankar and Jaikishan used to compose tunes and were in touch with Raj Kapoor, who was working as an assistant to the famous director Kidar Sharma and was aspiring to be an actor/director. Thus, the three had met at Prithvi Theatre.Barsaat: the first break
Raj Kapoor made his debut as a director with the film Aag in 1948. Its music director Ram Ganguly was assisted by Shankar and Jaikishan. However, during the recording of a song for his new venture Barsaat, Raj Kapoor had some serious differences with Ram Ganguly and decided to assign its music to Shankar who insisted on taking Jaikishan as his partner. Thus came into existence the new pair of music directors named ‘Shankar-Jaikishan’ who composed the music for the film.
Himself being a trained singer (he and Mukesh learned vocal music from the same Guru), Raj Kapoor thus took on board a new team of composers Shankar and Jaikishan and lyricists Shailendra and Hasrat Jaipuri (a former bus conductor). On the insistence of Shankar, he and SJ co-opted the upcoming singing talent Lata Mangeshkar, and repeated Mukesh as Raj Kapoor’s ghost voice for the various songs of Barsaat.
The film also had the distinction of featuring two firsts in Hindi cinema — a title song (“Barsaat Mein Humse Mile”) and a cabaret (“Patli Kamar Hai”).Early works b/w 1949–1959
The two became known by the acronym “S-J”.
Their early works include Barsaat, Awaara, Badal (1951 film), Poonam (1952 film), Nagina, Aurat, Parbat, Kaali Ghataa, Aah, Patita, Shikast, Badshah, Mayur Pankh, Naya Ghar, Seema, Shree 420, Basant Bahar, Halaku, Rajhath, New Delhi, Kathputli, Anari, Chori Chori, Daag, Begunah, Yahudi, Main Nashe main hoon, Kanaiah, Boot Polish, Chhoti Behan, Sharaarat, Love Marriage, and Ujala.Musical collaborators
S-J formed a core team with lyricists Shailendra (himself regarded as perhaps the greatest of his ilk) and Hasrat Jaipuri and with singers Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle. SJ had two other lifelong companions who worked as their assistants: Dattaram Wadkar and Sebastian D’Souza, the former supervising their rhythm section and the latter writing musical notations for all SJ compositions (during SJ’s musical sittings as can be seen in a number of photographs of such sessions) and then rehearsing all the musicians of the grand SJ orchestra according to SJ’s compositions and directions. SJ also patronized the immensely talented singer Manna Dey, who sang his best songs with them and used Mukesh’s silken voice as playback for Raj Kapoor. Among the directors, they worked most closely with Raj Kapoor and were considered the kingpins of his legendary banner RK Films.
They were commercial geniuses in addition to be wonderfully god-blessed in music. They led the Bollywood music in spite of tough competition from maestros like Naushad, C Ramchandra, Roshan, SD Burman, OP Nayyar, Salil Choudhury and Madanmohan and remained on the top much to the chagrin of very highly talented music directors!
S-J worked with almost all singers of their time. They had a good working relationship with all of them and were masters in extracting the very best from every one of them. They were steady as a team with Hasrat Jaipuri and Shailendra as their lyricists; but after the demise of Shailendra, they worked with a host of other lyricists such as Indeevar, Gulshan Bawra, Gopaldas Neeraj, Verma Malik, Majrooh Sultanpuri, Vithhal Bhai Patel and Rajinder Krishan, to name a few.
S-J were the “house composers” for RK Films and were on their pay-roll till the end. Raj Kapoor used to maintain a music bank where he stored compositions of S-J. Even after the termination of the professional association between Shankar and Raj Kapoor (Jaikishan had died by then), the latter had used a number of S-J’s earlier compositions (which were in his custody) for all his films though the credits were given officially to other composers, e.g., Laxmikant Pyarelal (Bobby, Satyam Shivam Sundaram, Prem Rog) and Ravindra Jain (Ram Teri Ganga Maili). S-J also worked with other stars like Shammi Kapoor, Rajendra Kumar, Dev Anand, Sunil Dutt, Kishore Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Biswajeet, Joy Mukherjee, Dharmendra & Manoj Kumar. Beside them S-J combo worked above all of with Mohd Rafi and secondly Mukesh, and produced numbers of hits and unmatchable gems. Mohd Rafi was their favourite singer despite having good reputation with other playback singers of its time.
Most of S-J’s films show Dattaram and Sebastian as their assistants. Dattaram handled the percussion section of the orchestra while Sebastian handled the rest. Dattaram met Shankar in a Gym when the latter was already working at Prithvi Theatre as a musician. After listening Shankar’s Tabla at the Gym and being highly impressed by his virtuosity, Dattaram became his disciple and remained with S-J throughout. As recalled by Dattaram, Sebastian used to write the musical notations of S-J’s compositions and also conducted the orchestra. Thus, S-J were fortunate to have top quality assistants and used their talents well.Composition style
Statue of Jaikishan at Bansada near Valsad, Gujarat (Jaikishan’s native town).
Shankar-Jaikishan’s compositions broke new ground in Hindi film music. Apart from relying upon their knowledge of Indian classical music, they also employed western beats and orchestration. Shankar-Jaikishan were the pioneers in establishing the role of the orchestra in song compositions as a medium to express and enhance the meanings and feelings of songs rather than using it just as a `filler’ as per the prevalent practice before their advent on the scene. They made use of the orchestra and musical instruments (often dozens or hundreds of them) in their songs which consisted of the following format: The song starts with a `prelude’ (preparatory music to create and introduce the environment and mood for the beginning of the song), then the mukhda starts and is followed by ‘interlude’ containing music pieces on the orchestra. With very few exceptions (“Ye mera deewana pan hai” is a good example), they always used different interludes before each stanza. ‘Multi-layered music studded with counter melodies’ played by the orchestra accompanied while the mukhda or the antara of a song was being sung and finally came the `epilogue’ – the music with which the song ended after the singer(s) had finished their singing.
Shankar-Jaikishan made a significant contribution in promoting Indian classical music throughout their career. It was their established practice to have at least one song in a movie based on semi-classical style. These included songs like `Jhanak-jhanak tori baje payaliya’ (Mere Huzoor), `Chham chham baje re payaliya’ (Jane-anjane), `Radhike tune bansari churayi’ (Beti Bete), `Manmohana bade jhoothe’ (old `Seema’), `Koi matwala aya mere dware’ (Love in Tokyo), `Ajahu na ayae baalma, sawan beeta jaye’ (Sanjh aur Savera), `Lapak jhapak tu aa re badarwa’ (Boot polish), `Ye barkha bahar sautaniya ke dwar’ (Mayur pankh), `Re man sur mein ga’ (Lal pathar), `Sooni sooni sans ke sitar par’ (Naina), `Kate na kate raina’ (Mera naam joker) and numerous others. Their music in both `Basant Bahar’ and Amrapali had every song based upon Indian classical music. While “raga Bhairavi” remained their perennial favorite, SJ used a variety of Raagas in their compositions.
Shankar-Jaikishan gave a new style and meaning to the genre of sad songs by composing them on a fast tempo. Songs like “Zindagi Mein Hardam Rota Hi Raha” (Barsaat), “Tera Jana Dil Ke Armanon” (Anari), “Haye Tu Hi Gaya Mohe Bhool Re” (Kathputli), “Aye Mere Dil Kahin Aur Chal’ (Daag) and “Andhe Jahan Ke Andhe Raate” (Patita) demonstrated this. The last two songs, along with many others (notably “Awaara Hoon” from the film Awaara), also demonstrate the composers’ use of musical instruments – a harmonium is used to produce the effect of a piano accordion.Working styles: ‘SJ’ were two composers in one name
“We have never thought of the public as the ‘masses’, but as individuals who want the best from us”
Shankar Jaikishan in 1962.
While working as a team, Shankar and Jaikishan used to compose their songs separately. Generally, Shankar liked to work with Shailendra and Jaikishan with Hasrat Jaipuri though there are notable instances where Shankar worked with Hasrat and Jaikishan with Shailendra. Of course there are a number of songs done jointly in which both of them contributed. Between the two, Shankar was the senior partner and hence, he would usually arrange the orchestra, even for Jaikishan’s songs. There was a gentleman’s agreement between them for not identifying the actual composer of the song. As a result, it has been a popular pastime for S-J aficionados to try to tell a Shankar song from a Jaikishan song. Dance numbers, title/theme songs and soulful songs were Shankar’s forte while Jaikishan was a master of composing background score, apart from romantic songs (he is generally regarded as the best ever in this genre) and simple, catchy compositions which became instant hits (“Ehsaan Mere Dil Pe” being a typical example of such songs). However, Shankar was no smaller in this aspect of devising simple ‘straight line’ tunes: “Mera Joota Hai Japani” (Sri 420) being the best example of this genre.
It is said that Jaikishan would count some numbers on his fingers before coming up with the background score for a particular scene on the spot! Two of S-J’s films, viz., Sangam (1964) and Mera Naam Joker (1971) are regarded even today as having some of the best background musical scores of Hindi films till date. Although, by and large, it was Jaikishan who used to work on background music of SJ movies as per their mutually agreed division of work, it may be an over-simplification to presume that therefore, whatever went in background scores was solely Jaikishan’s creation. Since SJ had a common pool of tunes in their stock, made by either of them during their numerous music sessions/sittings (Riyaz), it was perfectly legitimate and natural for Jaikishan to have used tunes created by Shankar also wherever needed. This is also one of the reasons why he was able to finish this job in a few days’ time. It is understood that in RK films, Shankar and Jaikishan both used to work on the background scores. On the other hand, both Shankar and Jaikishan were equally proficient in scoring western music based songs.
Despite their distinct working styles and preferences, it is very difficult, if not altogether impossible, to ascribe most of their songs to only one of them. In most of the songs, they invariably contributed to one another’s creation, either in the form of improvisation of tune or of orchestration, thus, making their compositions truly a joint effort. Furthermore, each of the two could compose in the other’s style now and then thereby making the identification still more difficult.
Contrary to the popular mis-conception that ‘it was Jaikishan who used to handle the public relations and business/financial aspects of the duo’s career’, the fact is that it was Shankar who had the final say on all financial/business aspects of the SJ-team.Raaga-jazz style
SJ’s 1968 Indo-jazz album, Raaga- Jazz Style.
Shankar Jaikishan made a major contribution towards the development of jazz music in India and the new genre Indo jazz. Their 1968 album Raaga-Jazz style is the earliest Indo-jazz recording in India. In this album, considered to be one of the most innovative, SJ created 11 songs based on Indian Ragas with saxophone, trumpet, sitar (by Rais Khan), tabla, bass etc.Awards
During their career, S-J won Filmfare Best Music Director Awards nine times. The last three awards were won in three successive years, thereby making S-J the first composers to score a hat trick of these awards.
S-J also came out tops in Binaca Geetmala, the legendary countdown radio program on Hindi film music, where their compositions were declared the most popular on six occasions (a record later equalled by Laxmikant Pyarelal). These songs were “Mera Joota Hai Japani” in 1955 (Shree 420), “Teri Pyari Pyari Surat Ko” in 1961 (Sasural), “Ehsaan Tera Hoga Mujh Par” in 1962 (Junglee), “Bol Radha Bol” in 1964 (Sangam), “Baharon Phool Barsaao” in 1966 (Suraj), and “Zindagi Ek Safar Hai Suhana” in 1971 (Andaaz). In 1959, seven of the top ten songs for the year were composed by S-J, a sort of record that stands perhaps to this date, though the top honours for that year went to SD Burman.Government recognitions
- 1968 – Shankar-Jaikishan was honoured with the Padmashri by the Government of India.
- 2013 – A postage stamp, bearing their face, was released by India Postto honour them on 3 May 2013.
FILMFARE AWARD STARTED DURING 1954 FOR BEST MUSIC DIRECTOR
|1957||Chori Chori||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri|
|1960||Anari||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri|
|1961||Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri|
|1963||Professor||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri|
|1967||Suraj||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri|
|1969||Brahmachari||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri|
|1971||Pehchaan||Neeraj, Indeevar, Varma Malik|
|1972||Mera Naam Joker||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri, Neeraj, Prem Dhawan|
|1959||Yahudi||Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra|
|1960||Chhoti Bahen||Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra|
|1962||Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai||Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra|
|1964||Dil Ek Mandir||Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra|
|1965||Sangam||Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra|
|1969||Diwana||Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra|
|1970||Chanda Aur Bijli||Neeraj, Indeevar|
|1975||Resham Ki Dori||Neeraj, Indeevar|
|1976||Sanyasi||Vithalbhai Patel, Varma Malik, Vishweshawar Sharma, Hasrat Jaipuri, M G Hashmat|
The Sur-Singar Awards
- 1968 – For the song “Jhanak Jhanak Toree Baje Payaliya” of the film Mere Huzoor
- 1971 – For the song “Re Man Sur Mein Ga”of the film Lal Patthar
Bengal Film Journalists’ Association Awards
- 1968 – Best Music Director for the film Brahmachari
- 1971 – Best Music Director for the film Andaz
Alleged disputes between Shankar and Jaikishan
In a signed article in Filmfare, Jaikishan identified unwittingly the song “Yeh Mera Prem Patra Padh Kar” (Sangam) as his composition. This led to a lot of bitterness between the two, as Shankar considered it a violation of the unwritten agreement between them. At about the same time, Shankar gave a break to singer Sharda and started promoting her as the new singing sensation in preference over Lata Mangeshkar. Jaikishan, however, stuck to Lata Mangeshkar for his compositions. In this period, Shankar and Jaikishan started taking individual contracts for films though every such film continued to show them together as the composers. Mohd. Rafi intervened and helped them settle their differences; however, it is conjectured that their relationship was not the same as earlier and this impacted the quality of their compositions which had started exhibiting a decline (which is clearly noticeable in the movies released during the last phases of Jaikishan’s lifetime and those released just after his demise).
On the other hand, Jaikishan, Hasrat and Shankar all had denied, whenever quizzed on this topic, that there ever was any rift between them. In fact, according to Hasrat, the division of work was by mutual agreement to cope up with the heavy work load so that Shankar and Shailendra looked after one part of the work while Jaikishan and Hasrat on the other part but this division was not rigid; there was a lot of give and take between them even during this phase. Towards the end (just before Jaikishan’s untimely demise), in several of their last movies such as Jane Anjane (1971), Andaaz (1971), Ankhon Ankhon Mein, Shankar and Jaikishan were known to be working together. In retrospect, it appears that the so-called rift between Shankar and Jaikishan was blown out of proportion by the media and vested interests and was used later to downgrade Shankar in his post-Jaikishan years.
Since Shankar continued to support Sharda (post Sangam era) and even ghost-composed music for her film and non-film albums, it is said that Lata Mangeshkar became angry with him and discontinued singing for him. Whereas there may be some truth in this assertion, the other fact is that Lata Mangeshkar had stopped working with him after Sangam due to her anger against both Raj Kapoor and Shankar in making her sing “Budhha Mil Gaya” from Sangam which she was not keen as she did not feel comfortable with the lyrics of the song. Nevertheless, she continued singing for Jaikishan even after Sangam and till the end.Standing in the industry
S-J enjoyed an unrivalled position in the Hindi film industry. During their heyday and even toward the later part of their career, they were the highest paid music directors in the industry. Barring stray exceptions, they were paid more than the leading actors and the promotional material of their films would give them more prominence than anyone else.
S-J staged a show in Shanmukhanad Hall, Mumbai in 1970 under the aegis of the Indian Navy. In terms of attendance and grandeur, it remains unsurpassed to this day, thus providing a public seal of approval to their leading status in the industry.Jaikishan’s death and SJ’s post-Jaikishan era
“What can I say… my musical partner in life has gone, what is left of me to say anything more, I had never thought that at such an early age he would leave us all and go; Anyway his good qualities of maintaining goodwill, giving love and receiving love were innate in him and I too don’t have them in me. He used to regularly remind me of my innate quality of being in a boisterous mood all the time and always abrasive with some one or the other and so on and so forthwith…….”
Shankar on Jaikishan’s death in an interview with Ameen Sayani.
Jaikishan died in 1971 due to cirrhosis of liver, a disease caused by excessive consumption of alcohol. At the time of his death, the duo enjoyed an unparalleled popularity which was underlined by a massive turnout at his funeral procession. Gaylord, a restaurant at Churchgate (Mumbai) where Jaikishan used to be a regular visitor, mourned the death of its illustrious patron by lighting a candle on his favorite table for one month and keeping it out of bounds for other guests with the sign “Reserved for Mr. Jaikishan”.
After Jaikishan’s death, Shankar carried on with the banner of Shankar-Jaikishan alone (as per their mutual understanding made during their lifetime that in case of the demise of any one of them, the surviving partner will continue to work with the same team name). He was clearly hampered by numerous reasons such as the departures of his soul-mate Jaikishan and his favourite lyricist Shailendra, the betrayal of Raj Kapoor, continued Shankar-bashing and false propaganda by his rivals and lack of motivation on his own part due to which his music appeared to suffer in comparison to S-J’s own high standards. Also, in spite of his continued experimentation on music, the projects themselves for which he worked did not turn out to be commercial successes due to which even his good scores went largely unnoticed.
According to Lata Mangeshkar herself, it was the late Mohd. Rafi who brought about a rapprochement between the two and she did start singing again for Shankar starting from Sohan Lal Kanwar’s `Sanyasi‘ and several other films later. Although Shankar’s creations during this period for Lata as well as other singers like Rafi, Kishore, Manna Dey were quite good, most of these went unnoticed due to non-descript status of such films which bombed at the box office. His most-successful musical hit was Sanyasi in 1975 for which he scored all songs and the entire background score based upon SJ’s favorite Raag Bhairavi to prove the point that SJ’s Bhairavi was as much Shankar’s as that of Jaikishan.
After Sanyasi, although some of Shankar’s later songs did exhibit flashes of the old maestro’s brilliance, overall, these films (Aatmaram, Do-Jhooth, Garam Khoon, Papi Pet Ka Sawal Hai, Chorni, Eint ka Jawab Pathar) did not succeed in endearing him to leading production houses, though there were some exceptions. For example, actor Dharmendra had signed Shankar to compose the score for his film Bichchoo, however, since Shankar did not accept Sai’s (who was more keen in having Raj Kamal as MD) interference in his work, he opted out of the project. Eventually, the project itself was abandoned by Dharmendra.
Shankar was in the running for Raj Kapoor’s film Satyam Shivam Sundaram(1978), but was overlooked in favour of Laxmikant Pyarelal whose candidature was supported vigorously by Mukesh. Ironically, Mukesh owed his standing in the film industry primarily to S-J’s compositions.
Shankar was also considered for Raj Kapoor’s proposed film Param Vir Chakra (his case was supported by Raj Kapoor’s sons), but the project did not see the light of day and Shankar never returned to the RK camp.Shankar’s death
Shankar died in 1987. His death received nominal media coverage and his funeral was attended only by his family and some friends. The film industry was hardly represented at his funeral , thus reinforcing the stereotype of its fickle-natured loyalties.
Raj Kapoor later paid glowing tributes to the colleague of his salad days in a televised interview. However, it was only after Raj Kapoor’s own death in 1988 that the significance of his association with Shankar Jaikishan was brought out in great detail.
A prominent crossroad junction at Churchgate, Mumbai has been named after Shankar-Jaikishan.
Chandrakant Bhosle first noticed Shankarji, as Shankar was popularly known among his friends, in Mumbai in 1945 when Shankarji arrived in Mumbai with balle troup of guru Krishnankutty and dancer Hemawati. Bhosle was a ‘tabla’ player and had become closely associated with Shankarji. He used to play ‘rhythm’ in Shankarji’s orchestra from 1945 until Shankarji’s death. A night before Shankarji’s death, i.e. on 25 April 1987 Shankarji dropped Bhosle near Charni Road railway station where Bhosle stayed and drove off to his own residence at Churchgate. On 26 April Bhosle was, as usual, waiting for Shankarji at around 10.00 a.m. to take him to the studio, but Shankarji did not turn up so Bhosle went to the studio by taxi. All the musicians waited the whole day for Shankarji in the studio but he did not turn up. The next day, Bhosle read the news of Shankarji’s death. Unfortunately, family members with whom Shankarji was staying did not inform Bhosle, Raj Kapoor or anybody from the film fraternity about Shankarji’s death.
It was Mr. Gokhale, who was once a cook in Shankarji’s house, who later became Pujari in Gora Ram Mandir at Thakurdwar, Mumbai, who informed people that Shankarji was cremated hastily on the day of his death, without the knowledge of others.Achievements
- Their regular lyricists were Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri. They wrote maximum number of songs for them.
- They also worked with lyricists like Anand Bakshi, Indeevar, Neeraj, Anjaan.
- They were regular composers for Raj Kapoor’s banner, RK Films from the start of their career till 1971 (Jaikishan’s death).
- They promoted new singers like Poornima, Sharda.
- Even today, their music is very popular all over India and all over the world.
- Barsaat has been rated the best soundtrack ever by Planet Bollywood on their “100 Greatest Bollywood Soundtracks”. Other soundtrack in the list include Awaara (3), Sangam (8),Shree 420 (15) Junglee (18), Chori Chori (19), Mera Naam Joker (48), Suraj (86), Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai (88), Anari (92).
References and further reading
- “Shankar Jaikishan Emperors of Music | Bollywood | Cinema Of India”. Scribd. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- “Proms – Programme Notes”. BBC. 12 September 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Chatterjee, Partha (16–29 June 2007). “A master’s voice”. Frontline. Vol. 24 no. 12. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- Masti Bhara Hai Samaa, Dattaram reminisces. Youtube
- Atkins, E. Taylor (2003), Jazz planet, University Press of Mississippi, 1578066093
- Govt. of India, Padma Shree Awardees. india.gov.in
- “Best Music Directors”. Filmfare. Archived from the original on 18 April 2005. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- “1969– 32nd Annual BFJA Awards – Awards For The Year 1968”. Bengal Film Journalists’ Association. Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- “1972– 35th Annual BFJA Awards – Awards For The Year 1971”. Bengal Film Journalists’ Association. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- “100 Greatest Bollywood Soundtracks Ever – Part 4”. Planet Bollywood. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- Slobin, Mark, ed. (2008). Global Soundtracks: Worlds Of Film Music. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6882-3.
- Nerurkar, Vishwas (2009). “Saat Suron Ka Saath – Shanker-Jaikishan”.
- Joshi, Padmanabh (2001). Shanker-Jaikishan: Sadabahar Film Sangeetna. Yugsarjak.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shankar Jaikishan.|
- Shankar Jaikishanon IMDb
- Shankar Jaikishan on IMDb
- Page of SJ in www.downmeldoylane.com
- Shankar-Jaikishan Emperors of Music
- Tribute to SJ
- Shankar Jaikishan Biography, music database and blog
Panchals belong to the southern part of Gujarat and are considered to be extremely skilled as artisans. I have no means to know whether Jaikshan Dayabhai Panchal belonged to this specific category. But, his skill at harmonium compels me to believe that he could assemble and reassemble all the reeds of the instrument with consummate passion and create stunning melody. For a long time I thought that instrument used in musical preludes and interludes in “Awaara Hoon” and “Andhey Jahan Ke Andhey Raaste” was Accordion. It was only few years later (around mid-50s) I learnt the effect was created by deft use of Harmonium. That was the time I also learnt that Jaikishan started his musical journey with this instrument. Did he carry goddess Saraswati’s blessings? I am inclined to think so because as I heard those songs over and over again, I was more and more convinced about the underlying divinity in those compositions. No wonder Jaikishan along with his partner Shankar reigned supreme in what is known as golden era of music.
Jaikishan’s creativity in composing background score is part of Bollywood folklore. It is believed that he would count a few numbers on his finger for a particular scene and compose music. In fact, he was known to complete background score for entire film in three days flat (with only three hour, 930 am-1230 noon, sitting each day). Till date nobody has a clue to his genius in this specialised area of film production.
Jaikishan was fun-loving and humane. He shared cordial relations with industry and had a special bond with Shammi Kapoor. In an interview in 2009 Shammi Kapoor narrated how hurt Jai (as he called him affectionately) felt when a particular hero of late 60s refused to accept his composition Aaj Kal Tere Mere Pyar Ke Charche, because it was not compatible with his image. Shammi Kapoor consoled Jai and assured him that he will gladly use it in his ongoing project Brahmchari. This gesture made Jai feel overwhelmed, Shammi Kapoor reminisced.
For industry tragedy struck twice in a space of five years. First Shailendra in 1966 and then Jaikishan in 1971. Chord of divine melody was snapped by cruel Fate. Good times don’t last forever. No wonder it signalled beginning of the end of golden era of film music !
‘दो भटकते राही – ‘शंकर – जयकिशन’,
आ मिले मंज़िल पर – चंद्रवदन भट ऑफीस, मायानगरी बंबई,
दो दिलों की कश्ती आ लगी साहिल पर – ‘पृथ्वी थिएटर्स’,
मुस्कुराते जागे एक संग दो मुक़द्दर’ – राज साहब की फ़िल्म ‘बरसात’ में स्वतंत्र संगीत निर्देशन का मौका …
‘२१ अप्रेल १९४९’ को बंबई के सिनेमा घरों की ओर जानेवाली सडकोंपर सिनेमा प्रेमियों की भीड उमडी थी, इसी दिन राज साहब की फिल्म ‘बरसात’ प्रदर्शित हुई थी, यह लोग बेताब थे, इस फ़िल्म के गीत पर्देपर देखने के लिए … एक युवा जोडीकी संगीत सफ़र की यह शुरुआत थी … फ़िल्म के शुरू होते ही श्रेय नामावली में (Titles) Music – Shankar – Jaikishan, Lyricist – Hasrat Jaipuri – Shailendra यह चार नाम पहली बार परदेपर दिखाई दिए, जो फ़िल्म का प्रमुख आकर्षण थे…’शंकर – जयकिशन’ इस नवोदित और युवा संगीतकार द्वयी का संगीत, और शैलेंद्र – हसरत इन नौजवां युवकों द्वारा लिखे गीत, उस दिन बहुचर्चित विषय बना था … इन चार युवकों नें हिंदी सिनेमा संगीत की दुनिया मे पहला कदम रखा था … ‘एस-जे’ ने इसी फिल्म से स्वतंत्र संगीत निर्देशन का ‘आगाज’ किया था … उस दिन शाम के ढलते ढलते ‘अंजाम’ यह था क़ि, युवा ‘एस-जे’ और उनकी धुनों से सजे गीत हर किसी के दिलमें जा बसे थे, साथ में ‘शैलेंद्र – हसरत जयपुरी’ जैसे युवा गीतलेखक, जो इन गीतों के रचनाकार थे … बंबई के साथ और बाद में जहां जहां बरसात प्रदर्शित हुई वहां उसे सफलता ही मिली…भारतवर्ष के तमाम संगीत शौकीन जो बदलाव चाहते थे, वोह ‘एस-जे’ लेकर आये थे हिंदी सिने संगीत में … नयी रचनाओं के साथ, नयी कर्णमधुर धुनों से सजे गीत लेकर …चार होनहार युवक, शंकर – हैदराबाद, जय – वंसदा (गुजरात), शैलेंद्र – मथुरा तो हसरत जयपुरी – ‘गुलाबी शहर’ जयपूर से बंबई आए थे … क़िस्मत आजमाने, आँखों में सपने सजाये, इस भूलभुलैय्या वाली मायानगरी में … और अपने पहले ही प्रयास में वें चारों सफल हुए थे.
‘बरसात में हमसे मिले तुम सजन तुमसे मिले हम बरसात में’,
‘जिया बेकरार हैं’,
‘हवा में उडता जाये’,
‘मैं जिंदगी में हरदम रोता’,
‘मुझे किसी से प्यार हो गया’,
‘अब मेरा कौन सहारा’,
‘छोड़ गए बालम’,
‘मेरी आँखों मे बस गया कोई रे,
‘बिछड़े हुए परदेसी’…..
सब गीत बेहद लोकप्रिय हुए …
अपनें धुवांधार संगीत से ‘एस-जे’ की जोडी ने संगीत के मैदान पर पहली बाज़ी जीत ली थी, हर किसीं का मन मोह लिया था … ‘बरसात’ की अपार सफलता से तीन बातें एक साथ हो गयी थी, एक तो राज साहब को इस जोड़ी की क़ाबिलीयत पर यक़ीन हो गया था, वोह अपनी शुरुआती फिल्मों की असफ़लता के ‘चक्रव्यूह’ से बाहर निकल गए थे, उनकी करिअर को दिशा मिल गयी थी, दूसरी बात उन्होंने RK स्टुडियो खरीद लिया था, …तीसरी और सबसे महत्वपूर्ण बात यह थी, ‘एस-जे’ के क़दम उस ‘संगीत सम्राट’ के सिंहासन की ओर बढ़ गए थे, जो उन्हें दूर से इशारा कर रहा था … और दूरी ज्यादह नहीं थी.
१९५१ में आवारा प्रदर्शित हुई और भारत की सीमा लाँघकर ‘एस-जे’ ने दूसरा क़दम सीधा विदेश में रक्खा … रूस, चीन, बल्गेरिया, टर्की के युवक रास्तों पर ‘आवारा हूँ’ यह गीत गाकर झूमने लगे,नाचने लगे थे … सभी गीत झक्कास थे, एस-जे अपनी दूसरी ही फ़िल्मसे ‘जगन्मान्य’ हो गए थे … तरोताज़ा, मदमस्त धुनें बनाकर वें विश्व में अपनी पहचान बना चुके थे … फिर संगीत प्रेमियों ने तुरंत उन्हें ‘संगीत सम्राट’ के सिंहासन पर बिठा कर उनकी ताज़पोशी कर दी थी.
‘तेरे बिना आग ये चाँदनी’
‘घर आया मेरा परदेसी’,
‘दम भर उधर मुंह फेरे’,
‘हम तुझसे मोहब्बत करके सनम’
‘एक बेवफ़ा से प्यार किया’,
‘जबसे बलम घर आएं’,
‘आ जाओ तड़पते हैं अरमाँ’ ….
यह गीत लोकप्रियता की चरम सीमा लांघ गए थे …
‘बरसात’, ‘आवारा’ के बाद अगले १० साल में उनकी ‘आह’, ‘पतिता’, ‘शिकस्त’, ‘दाग’, ‘मयुरपंख’, ‘श्री ४२०’, ‘राजहठ’, ‘पटरानी’, ‘न्यू दिल्ली’, ‘बसंत बहार’, ‘चोरी चोरी’, ‘कठपुतली’, ‘छोटी बहन’, ‘हलाकू’, ‘यहूदी’ आदि फिल्में प्रदर्शित हुईं और वें इन फिल्मों में बेहतर से बेहतरीन गीत पेश करते गए …
‘बसंत बहार’ का ख़ास जिक़्र करना चाहूंगा … यह फ़िल्म ‘LITMUS TEST’ थी और ‘एस-जे’ इसमें आसानी से अव्वल नंबर्स लेकर उत्तीर्ण हुए थे … इस फिल्म के सब गीत रागदारी पर आधारित थे, विभिन्न रागों का प्रयोग किया था और उन्हें इस प्रयोग में जबरदस्त कामयाबी मिली थीं.
‘केतकी,गुलाब,जूही,चंपक बन फूले’ – राग – ‘बसंत बहार’,
‘सूर ना सजे’ – राग – ‘पिलू बसंत’,
‘जा जा रे जा बालमवा’ – राग ‘झिंझोटी’,
‘नैन मिले चैन कहाँ’ – राग – ‘रागेश्री’,
‘दुनिया ना भाये मुझे’ – राग ‘तोड़ी’,
‘कर गया रे मुझपे जादू’ – राग ‘रागेश्री’,
‘बड़ी देर भयी’ – राग ‘दरबारी’
एस-जे का यह मुँहतोड़ और क़रारा जवाब था, उन लोगों को जो, उन्हें सिर्फ पश्चिमी ढंग की रचनाओं का संगीतकार मानते थे, जो एस-जे की क़ाबिलियत पर प्रश्नचिन्ह लगाते थे … ‘बसंत बहार’ के बाद यह लोग हमेशा के लिए ख़ामोश हो गए … ‘पटरानी’ की रचनाएँ भी इसी स्तर की थी, तो ‘हलाकू’ और ‘यहुदी’ में अरेबिक ढंग का संगीत था, जो उन फिल्मों की ज़रूरत थी… बसंत बहार के बाद एस – जे और खुल कर, आत्मविश्वास के साथ अपनी रचनाएँ पेश करने लगे … उनकी संगीतशैली में अब और ख़ुमार आया था …पश्चिमी, अरेबिक, और शास्त्रीय संगीत तीनों ढंग में उन्होंने अपनी रचनाएँ पेश की थी और संगीत रसिकों के लिए यह बेशक़ीमती उपहार था … परिपूर्ण अभ्यास, कठोर संगीत साधना से उन्होंने संगीतकला को नया आयाम दिया था, नयी पहचान दी थी …
‘एस-जे’ की इन फिल्मों के कुछ यादगार गीत …
‘पतिता’ – ‘याद किया दिलने कहाँ हो तुम, ‘है सबसे मधुर गीत वो’, ‘किसी ने अपना बनाके मुझको’ …
‘आह’ – ‘आजा रे अब मेरा दिल पुकारा’, ‘रात अँधेरी दूर सवेरा’, ये शाम की तनहाइयाँ’ …
‘श्री ४२०’ – ‘रमैय्या वस्तावैया’, ‘मेरा जूता है जापानी’, ‘इचक दाना बिचक दाना’, ‘प्यार हुआ इकरार हुआ’, ‘दिल का हाल सुनें दिलवाला’
‘दाग’ – ‘ए मेरे दिल कहीं और चल’,
‘शिकस्त’ – ‘जब जब फूल खिले’, ‘कारे बदरा तू ना जा’, ‘चमके बिजुरियां’
‘पटरानी’ – ‘चंद्रमा मदभरा,
‘बसंत बहार’ – ‘केतकी, गुलाब, जूही, चंपक बन फूले, सूर ना सजे,
‘राजहठ’ – ‘ये वादा करो चाँद के सामने’,
‘कठपुतली’ – ‘बोल री कठपुतली’
‘छोटी बहन’ – ‘जाऊँ कहा बता ए दिल’, ‘भैया मेरे राखी के बंधन को निभाना’, मैं रंगीला प्यार का राही’ …
‘यहूदी’ – ‘ये मेरा दीवानापन है’, ‘मेरी जां मेरी जां’, ‘
‘हलाकू’ – ‘दिल का ना करना एतबार कोई’, ‘अजी चले आवो’, ‘आजा के इंतजार में’
‘चोरी चोरी’ – ‘आजा सनम मधुर चाँदनी में’, ‘पंछी बनू उडती फिरुं’,
‘अनाडी’ – ‘वो चांद खिला’, ‘सब कुछ सीखा हमनें ना सीखीं होशियारी’,
‘कन्हैया’ – ‘मुझे तुमसे कुछ भी ना चाहिये’, ‘
‘चोरी चोरी’ (१९५६) के अफ़लातून संगीत के लिए उन्हें ‘फ़िल्म फेयर पुरस्कार’ से सन्मानित किया गया …यह उनका पहला पुरस्कार था …शास्त्रीय संगीत के साथ पाश्चिमात्य,अरेबिक ऐसे सब संगीत प्रयोग सफल हुए थे … अब एस-जें के सामने मुक़ाबले में कोई खड़ा नही था, मुकाबला ख़ुद से ही था … संगीत साम्राज्य के वोही चक्रवर्ती सम्राट है इस बात को लेकर, अब किसी के मनमें कोई आशंका नहीं थी.
एस-जें का साज़गार तबला, हारमोनियम, सतार, बांसरी, ढोलक, डफली, मटका, सनई इन पारंपारिक वाद्यों के साथ पियानो, गिटार, अकॉर्डियन, व्हायलिन, मँडोलिन, इलेक्ट्रिक गिटार, सैक्सोफोन, इलेक्ट्रिक ऑर्गन, ट्रम्पेट, बोंगो, कोंगो ऐसी आधुनिक साजों से सजा था, इन अमोघ अस्त्रों का अपनी फिल्मों में चतुराई से प्रयोग करके एस-जें लगातार रसिकों के दिलों का वेध लेते रहे, उन्हें सम्मोहित करते रहे…
५० – ६० साजिंदे चक्रवर्ती सम्राट एस-जे के दरबार में हाज़िर हमेशा हाज़िर रहते थे … ‘दत्तू ठेका’ तो घर घर में पहुँच चुका था…साथ कविराज – हसरत यह दरबारी राजकवियों की जोडीद्वारा निरंतर बेहतरीन गीत निर्मिती हो रही थी.
१९६० से एस-जे पूरी सुरीली लय में थे, उनके द्वारा संगीतबद्ध की कई बेहतरीन फिल्में प्रदर्शित हुई. इनमें से कुछ प्रमुख थी,
‘जिस देश में गंगा बहती हैं’, ‘असली नकली’, ‘जब प्यार किसी से होता है’, ‘ससुराल’, ‘दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई’, ‘एक दिल सौ अफ़साने’, ‘आशिक़’, ‘कन्हैया’, ‘दिल एक मंदिर’, ‘जंगली’, ‘प्रोफेसर’, ‘दिल तेरा दीवाना’, ‘हमराही’, ‘जिंदगी’, ‘राजकुमार’, ‘संगम’, ‘लव्ह इन टोकियो’, ‘आरजू’, ‘जानवर’, ‘सूरज’, ‘तीसरी कसम’, ‘गबन’, ‘सांझ और सवेरा’, ‘आम्रपाली’, ‘अँन इव्हिनिंग इन पँरिस’, ‘दीवाना’, ‘दुनिया’, ‘मेरा नाम जोकर’, ‘प्रिंस’, ‘पहचान’, ‘ब्रह्मचारी’, ‘शिकार’, ‘रात और दिन’, ‘संन्यासी’, ‘अंदाज’ आदि
इन फिल्मों में उनके अप्रतिम धुनों से सजे गीतों से उनका संगीत साम्राज्य और बढ़ता गया … अजरामर गीतों से समृद्ध होता गया.
‘एस-जे’ के ‘फ़िल्म फेअर पुरस्कार –
१९५७ – चोरी चोरी, १९६० – अनाडी, १९६१ – दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई, १९६३ – प्रोफेसर, १९६७ – सूरज, १९६९ – ब्रम्हचारी, आख़री की ‘हॅट्रिक’ १९७१ – पहचान, १९७२ – मेरा नाम जोकर, १९७३ – बेईमान.
भारत सरकार द्वारा ‘पद्मश्री’ पुरस्कार से सन्मानित …
उनकी रागदारी पर आधारित कुछ रचनाएं …..
सदा सुहागिन राग – ‘भैरवी’
बरसात में हमसे मिले तुम सजन – बरसात
रमैय्या वस्तावैय्या – श्री ४२०
मेरा जूता हैं जापानी – श्री ४२०
तेरा जाना दिल के अरमानों का लूट जाना – अनाडी
दोस्त दोस्त ना रहा – संगम
तुम्हें और क्या दूं मैं – आयी मिलन की बेला
राजा की आयेगी बारात – आह
कैसे समझाऊँ बडी नासमझ हो – सूरज
जा जा रे जा बालमवा – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘शिवरंजनी’
आवाज़ दे के हमें – प्रोफेसर
बहारों फूल बरसाओ – सूरज
ओ मेंरे सनम दो जिस्म मगर – संगम
दिलके झरोंखें में तुझको बिठाकर – ब्रम्हचारी
चंद्रमा मदभरा – पटरानी
राग – ‘किरवाणी’
आई झुम झुम रात ये सुहानी – लव्ह मैरीज
गीत गाता हूं मैं – लाल पत्थर
याद ना जायें बीतें दिनों की – दिल एक मंदिर
तुम्हें याद करते करते – आम्रपाली
तुम जो हमारे मीत ना होते – आशिक
जब भी ये दिल उदास होता हैं – सीमा
मन रे तू ही बता क्या गाऊँ – हमराही
राग – ‘जयजयवंती’
मनमोहना बडें झूठें – सीमा
सूनी सूनी सांस के सितार पर – लाल पत्थर
राग – ‘दरबारी कानडा’
हम तुझसे मोहब्बत करके सनम – आवारा
तू प्यार का सागर है – सीमा
कोई मतवाला आया मेरे द्वारे – लव्ह इन टोकियो
छम छम बाजे रे पायलिंया – जाने अनजाने
राग – ‘झिंझोटी’
जा जा रे जा बालमवां – बसंत बहार
जाऊँ कहाँ बता ए दिल – छोटी बहन
तुम मुझे यूँ भूला ना पावोगे – पगला कहीं का
राग – ‘पहाडी’
मेरी अंखियों में बस गया कोई रे – बरसात
प्रीत ये कैसी बोल – दाग
मोरा नादान बालमा – उजाला
राग – ‘पिलू’
अजहूं ना आये बालमा – सांज और सवेरा
दिन सारा गुजारा तोरे अंगना – जंगली
मुरली बैरन भयी रे – न्यू दिल्ली
राग – ‘दरबारी’
राधिके तू ने बंसरी चुराई – बेटी बेटे
झनक झनक तोरी बाजे पायलियां – मेरे हुजूर
बड़ी देर भयी – बसंत बहार
मुझे तुमसे कुछ भी न चाहिये – कन्हैया
राग – ‘भूपाली’
नील गगन की छांव में – आम्रपाली
सायोनारा – लव्ह इन टोकियो
राग – ‘शुद्ध कल्याण’
रसिक बलमा – चोरी चोरी
मेरी मुहब्बत जवां रहेगी – जानवर
राग – ‘भीम पलासी’
देखो मेरा दिल मचल गया – सूरज
तड़प ये दिन रात की – आम्रपाली
राग – ‘रागेश्री’
मेरे संग गा गुनगुना – जानवर
कर गया रे मुझपे जादू – बसंत बहार
नैन मिले चैन कहाँ – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘जोगिया’
दिल एक मंदिर है – दिल एक मंदिर
राग – ‘यमन कल्याण’
एहसान तेरा होगा मुझपर – जंगली
राग – ‘चारुकेशी’
बेदर्दी बालमा तुझको – आरजू
राग – ‘पिलू-बसंत’
सूर ना सजे – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘तोडी’
दुनिया ना भाये मोहे अब तो बुला ले – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘तिलक कामोद’
हम तेरे प्यार में सारा आलम – दिल एक मंदिर
राग – ‘गारा’
उनके खयाल आयें – लाल पत्थर
राग – ‘बसंत बहार’
केतकी,गुलाब,जूही चंपक बन फूले – बसंत बहार
इनके अलावा ऐसे सेकड़ों बहारदार गीत रचे थे, एस-जे की जोडीने .. वाकई अचाट, अफाट, अफ़लातून, अगम्य, अतर्क्य काम था यह…रात रात जाग कर उन्होंने अपना साम्राज्य खड़ा किया था … सालोंसाल संगीत की उपासना कर, इस साधकद्वयीने साक्षात ‘माँ सरस्वती को प्रसन्न किया था, सर पर माँ का ‘वरदहस्त’ होने की वजह से, गीत को किस राग में बाँधना, किस गायक /गायिका से /किस नायक /नायिका के लिये गवाना, ५०-६० साजिंदे संभालना, उन्हें स्वरलिपी लिखकर देना यह सब बहुत जटिल था,लेकिन इन प्रतिभासंपन्न संगीत सम्राटोंनें उसे आसान बना दिया.
‘एस-जें’ का संगीत, उनके सभी गीत हमारे ह्रदय में सदा बसे रहेंगे…उनके कुछ विविधता भरे
गीत … मेरे और आपके भी पसंदीदा.
‘केतकी,गुलाब, जूही,चंपक बन फूले’ – पं.भीमसेन जोशी – मन्ना दा की जुगलबंदी अविस्मरणीय.
‘याद किया दिल ने’ – हसरत-एस-जे-लता-हेमंत कुमार का बेहद खूबसूरत, मनमोहक गीत.
‘आ अब लौट चले’ – व्हायलिन की झंकार, लताजी के आलाप हृदयस्पर्शी.
‘ये मेरा प्रेमपत्र पढ़कर’ – इस गीत का लुत्फ़ उठाना है तो, यह गीत परदेपर शुरू होने से पांच मिनट पहले ध्यान से देखियेगा फिर आप एस-जे के क़माल की, उनके करिश्मे की खुल कर दाद ज़रूर दोगे.
‘दोस्त दोस्त ना रहा’,
‘दिलके झरोखें में तुझको बिठाकर’ – एस-जे के सर्वोत्तम पियानो गीत.
‘हर दिल जो प्यार करेगा’ – त्रिकोणीय सुंदर प्रेमाभिव्यक्ती …
राधासे एकतरफ़ा प्रेम करनेवाले सुंदर का भरी महफिल में मुहब्बत का खुला इज़हार, ‘राधा’ संयम से वास्तव बयां करती है, तो ‘गोपाल’ सुंदर की दोस्ती के खातिर अपना और राधा का प्यार बख़ूबी छुपाता है, और जब वोह ‘अपना के हर किसीको बेगाना जायेगा’ कहता है, तब ‘संगम’ का अंत क्या होगा ? यह समझ में आता हैं.
‘आ गले लग जा’ – एप्रिल फूल के इस गीत की प्रस्तावना (Prelude) ८.३० मिनट की.
‘कैसे समझाऊँ बडी नासमझ हो’ – आशा – रफ़ी इन टॉप क्लासिकल फॉर्म.
‘देखो अब तो किसको नहीं है खबर’ – गिटार वादन झक्कास, आशा – रफ़ी साहब ने इसे मस्ती में गाया है, पश्चिमी ढंग का, ‘बीटल्स’ के “I wanna hold your hand” पर आधारित, लेकीन ‘ओरिजिनल’से भी बेहतरीन.
‘आजा रे आ ज़रा आ लहराके आ ज़रा आ’ – गिटार, वादन और रफ़ीसाहब का ‘मिडास टच’.
‘ये मेरा दीवानापन हैं’ – प्यार में टूटें हुए दिल की पुकार … तब भी और आज भी.
‘ये शाम की तनहाइयाँ’,
‘तेरा जाना दिलके अरमानों का लूट जाना’,
‘बेदर्दी बालमा तुझको मेरा मन याद करता हैं’ – प्रेमी के विरह में प्रेमिका अक्सर इन्ही गीतों कों गुनगुनाती है.
‘ए फूलों की रानी बहारों की मलिका’,
‘ऐ गुलबदन’ – प्रेमिका की तारीफ़ प्रेमी आज भी ऐसे ही करता है.
‘अजी रूठकर अब कहाँ जाईयेगा’ – प्रेमिका की मीठी और सुरीली तकरार
‘प्यार आँखों से जताया तो बुरा मान गये’ – और ये प्रेमी की तकरार.
‘दिन सारा गुजारा तोरे अंगना’ – घर लौटने की इजाजत मांगती प्रेमिका.
‘होठों पे सच्चाई रहती हैं’ – भारतीय संस्कृती की पहचान, हर भारतीय इसे अभिमान से गायेगा, अव्वल नंबर का ‘मातृभूमि वंदन गीत’… कविराज ख़ुद डफली बजानें में माहिर थे, … राजसाब ने इसी डफली का साथ लेकर, अपनी फ़िल्म ‘जिस देश में गंगा बहती है’ का ‘राजू’ साकार किया था.
‘बहारों फूल बरसाओ’ – बँडपथक का अत्यंत प्रिय गीत, विवाह समारंभ में इसे अवश्य बजाया जाता है, हसरत साहब का पहला ‘फ़िल्म फेयर पुरस्कार’ विजेता गीत.
‘तुम्हें याद करते करते’ – सितार – सरोद लाजवाब, लताजी का अत्युत्कृष्ट गीत, कविराज – एस-जे का शायद आखरी.
‘सजन रे झूठ मत बोलो’ – ‘त्रिकालाबाधित सत्य’, ‘कविराज’ शैलेंद्र जी की सरल शब्दावली और एस-जे की सुरीली धुन, सदाबहार,अविस्मरणीय गीत.
‘आजा सनम मधुर चाँदनी में’,
‘दिल की नज़र से’,
‘वो चाँद खिला’ – शीतल चाँदनी रातों में घूमते हुए प्रेमी – प्रेमिकाओं के होठों पर होते है यह प्रेमगीत.
‘सब कुछ सीखा हमने ना सीखी होशियारी’ – असामाजिक तत्वों पर कविराज जी का प्रहार … यहां होशियारी का अर्थ मक्कारी होता हैं … इस देश के करोड़ो ईमानदार लोगों का कालजयी गीत … अकॉर्डियन पीसेस जबरदस्त.
‘हम भी है तुम भी हो’ – ‘सत-असत’ दोनो पहलू दर्शानेवाला गीत, कविराज जी की ‘प्रगल्भता’ लफ्जों में, एस- जे की ‘प्रतिभा’ धुनों में दिखाई देती हैं …एक बेहतरीन गीत जो, आज भी हृदय में बसा हुआ हैं.
‘तेरे बिना आग ये चाँदनी’ और बादमें आनेवाला ‘घर आया मेरा परदेसी’ – आवारा का यह भव्य ‘स्वप्न दृश्य गीत’ सिर्फ़ ‘न भूतो न भविष्यती’ … फिर कविराज और एस-जे लाजवाब,
‘हम तुझसे मोहब्बत करके सनम’,
‘रात अँधेरी दूर सवेरा’
‘आजा रे अब मेरा दिल पुकारा’ – हसरत साब सिर्फ़ रोमँटिक शायर नही बल्कि सिद्धहस्त कवि थे …ये दर्दभरे गीत उनकी क़ाबिलियत की पुष्टी करते है.
‘अजहूँ ना आएँ बालमा’ – यह हसरत साहब की शास्त्रीय रचना अभी भी उतनी ही ताजगीभरी.
‘चाहे कोई मुझे जंगली कहे’ – सिर्फ़ और सिर्फ़ शम्मी कपूर के लिए बनाया गया.
‘जानेवाले ज़रा होशियार’ – सॅक्सोफोन मस्त, ‘राजकुमार’ शम्मी कपूर’ छा गए थे.
आसमान से आया फरिश्ता’ – मदमस्त संगीत एस-जे का, ऐसे स्टंटस् उस दौर में शम्मी कपूर की ख़ासियत.
‘बदन पे सितारें’ – ‘एस-जे’ का झक्कास ऑर्केस्ट्रा.
‘खुली पलक में झूठा गुस्सा’ – वाकई जीना भी मुश्क़िल मरना भी मुश्क़िल कर दिया था एस-जे ने.
‘मेरी मोहब्बत’, ‘एहसान तेरा होगा मुझपर’, ‘तुम मुझे यूँ भूला ना पाओगे’ – भावुक ‘शम्मी’ गीत.
कविराज १९६६ में तो जयभाई १९७१ में, शंकर जी, हसरत साहब से, अलविदा कहकर इस दुनिया से चल दिये … महफ़िल सुनी सुनी हो गई थी … शंकर जी तन्हा हो गए थे … पहली मुलाक़ात से १९७१ तक उन्होंने
जयकिशन जी को अपने छोटे भाई की तरह संभाला था … जयसाहब – पल्लवी जी की शादी में ‘कन्यादान’ की रस्म शंकरजी ने ही पूरी की थी …जयभाई मिलनसार व्यक्ति थे, फुरसद में फ़िल्म जगत की पार्टियों में जाते थे … तो शंकरजी ज़्यादा उन व्यक्तियों से मिलते थे जो संगीत जगत से संबंधित थे … फुरसद में भी संगीत की बारीकियां सीखते रहते … दोनों १० – १२ वाद्य बजाना सीखें थे … शंकरजी कुश्ती के शौक़ीन थे और ‘भरत नाट्यम’ में महारत हासिल थी … दोनों दिलदार थे …सामाजिक कार्यों में हमेशा आगे रहते थे … जयभाई का साथ छूटने के बाद शंकरजी ‘एस-जे’ के नाम से ही संगीत देते रहे और उनके पारिश्रमिक का आधा हिस्सा पल्लवी जी को पहुंचाते रहे …आखरी दिनों में सब क़रीबी दोस्त दूर हो गए थे, लेकिन वोह एक बहादुर योद्धा
थे … अपने नाम के अनुसार ज़हर के घूंट पीते रहे …और अपना ग़म छुपाते रहे … हसरत साहब ही थे उनके साथ आख़री समय तक … २६ अप्रेल १९८७ को शंकर जी भी चले गए दुनिया से विदा लेकर और उनके साथ संगीत का सुरीला सफ़र ख़त्म हुआ … दास्ताँ खत्म हुई पर उनका संगीत अमर हैं, और सदियों तक रहेगा !
सच कहूँ तो … ‘एस-जे’, उनका अद्वितीय संगीत यह क़िताब का विषय है, उनके सभी गीतों का यहाँ ज़िक्र और मूल्यमापन करना असंभव बात है … १९४९ में शंकर – जयकिशन – कविराज – हसरत यह चार असामान्य कलाकार दुनिया के सामने आएं, राज कपूर साहब की बरसात में … बरसात से ही ‘संगीत सुवर्ण युग’ शुरू हुआ … अगले २० – २२ साल सर्वोत्तम हिंदी सिने गीत संगीत निर्मिती करके इन ‘FANTASTIC FOUR‘ ने उनके गीत -संगीत द्वारा अन्य संगीतकारों के मुक़ाबले, इस ‘सुवर्ण युग’ को सबसे ज्यादह चमक दी, ऐसा कहा जाएं, तो ज्यादती नही होगी … ‘कविराज’ शैलेंद्र – ‘राजकवि’ हसरत जयपुरी और अन्य गीतकारों ने आशयपूर्ण, समर्पक गीत लिख कर उन्हें समर्थ साथ दिली … एस-जे ने उनके संगीत निर्देशन में सभी गायिका/गायकों से बेहतरीन गंवाया था, उनकी आवाज़ का सही उपयोग किया था … लता, आशा, मन्ना दा, मुकेश, रफ़ी साहब, सुमन कल्याणपुर, शारदा जी इनके गायें गीत सर्वाधिक लोकप्रिय हुए थे मूल संगीत का ढांचा, नींव कायम रख कर, पारंपरिक साजों के साथ आधुनिक साजों का मिलाफ़ कर, गीतों को नया रूप देने वाले एस-जें ही थे, उनकी ज़्यादातर रचनाएँ रागदारी पर आधारित थी, गीत की प्रस्तावना (Prelude), मुखड़े और अंतरे के बीच का संगीत (Interlude), तथा गीत का अंत इन तीनों में मास्टर्स रहें, … हिंदी फिल्मों के ‘सुवर्ण संगीत युग’ के आधुनिक शिल्पकार, विविधतापूर्ण संगीत निर्मिती करनेवाले,
‘चक्रवर्ती संगीत सम्राट’ ‘एस-जें’ को, ‘कविराज शैलेंद्र’, हसरत साहब को सब संगीत प्रेमियों का सलाम …!
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WELCOME!!! to the World of Shanker-Jaikishen’s memories. The duo who ruled the Music Scenario of Hindi Film Music with their debut film Barsaat for continuous 20 years like Emperors of Melody are still now most listened but less mentioned. It is a humble effort to spread information about them, their films and music to their die hard fans. You will find rare articles, photos, stories, anecdotes about them here. Since Lyricists Shailendra and Hasrat Jaipuri were their inseparable parts, this blog is also a memorabilia of Fab Fours SJSH (Shankar-Jaikishan-Shailendra-Hasrat).
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A DAUGHTER REMEMBERS: ‘JYOTI ~ KALASH’ by Lavanya Shah
February 28, 2013 marks the birth centenary of noted poet and lyricist Pt. Narendra Sharma.On this occasion, Lavanya Shah, Pandit ji’s daughter shares with us some facts and personal memories of her illustrious father. Thanks, Lavanya ji.
A DAUGHTER REMEMBERS: ‘JYOTI ~ KALASH’
by Lavanya Shah
Like a child that climbs out of the womb of Earth and stands in awe witnessing the glorious golden Sun rays, sparkling on the highest peak of majestic Everest and remains transfixed that is the feeling flooding my tiny heart as I sit and write and remember my father, late poet Pandit Narendra Sharma.
His contribution is immense. It is spread over six decades on all the modern mass media communication avenues like Books, Films, Radio, Television and now the World Wide Web via YouTube, Facebook, etc.
For me, I confess, that my Papa was our family’s ‘Jyoti ~ Kalash’! He
remains life -giving, illuminating SUN energizing and inspiring me in spite of life’s pitfalls. I hope, his immortal poems and songs will inspires us all today and forever. So, I dedicate the song ‘ Jyoti – Kalash Chalke’ in his fond memory.
Song Link :1
We all know him for his Hindi songs but he was also an expert astrologer, Ayurvedic healer, as well as human encyclopedia on Indian History, Culture and Philosophy.
Many children were given unique names like Vihaan (Dawn), Yuti (Union), Lavanya (Grace = me :), Kunjam (Cuckoo), Sopan (chapter or ascent = My Son). Some rare names given by him include Vividh – Bharti, Manjusha, Bela Ke Phool, Hawa Mahal , Gajra, etc. for AIR , the name Dilip Kumar to Yusuf Khan & NAVKETAN for Dev Anand’s Film Production company.
A gifted child, ‘Narendra‘ was born on February 28th,1913 in village Jahangirpur, Tehsil Khurja of district Bulandshahar U.P. in a Bharadwaj Brahmin family. He lost his father Purna Lal Sharma when he was merely 4 years old and was raised lovingly by Uncle Ganpat Tau ji & Ma Ganga Devi.
A child prodigy, Narendra named thus by an uncle (a fan of Tagore) entered straight into class 7 th and was a top student in his class and favorite of Teachers. Passing Intermediate from Khurja, he joined Allahabad university and did his Masters in English Literature & Education.
The Sangam city of Allahabad introduced the budding poet to giants of Hindi literature like Niralaji , Mahadevi, Pant, Bachchan, Kedar Nath , Shamsher & many others. Narendra’s book of poems ‘Shool – Phool’ was released at age 20. With tuitions and editorial duties (he was sub-editor of Abhyudaya Hindi Daily Newspaper) he completed his studies. After graduating, he taught English & Hindi poetry at Benaras Hindu University. Then he joined the All India Congress Committee at Allahabad as Hindi Secretary to Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and later as Hindi Adhikari in Feb 1955.
Narendra Sharma’s poems written in his youth, depicting love and longing and splendour of Nature steadily turned patriotic as India reached its tryst with Destiny. During AICC work he was imprisoned on direct ordinance of Viceroy and jailed without trial by the British. The patriot had august company of Menon, Kriplani, etc in Devli Detention Camp, and Rajasthan & Pune Jails. He did fast unto Death for 14 days and was force fed in order to keep him alive and released early. Mother Ganga Devi remained hungry for 1 week and awaited her son’s arrival at home.
Novelist Shri Bhagwati Charan Verma ( Chitralekha fame) arrived and asked the patriot to come
away with him to the film city of Bombay to join Bombay Talkies under Devika Rani. Thus began the journey of a young man born near the Ganga to go towards the Arabian Sea where destiny introduced him to Susheela Godiwala, his wife to be from a Gujrati family. They got married on May 12th 1947. Their home at Shivaji park Matunga was a hub of artistic and creative activity with the likes of Panna Lal Ghosh, Pant, Anil Biswas, Dr Safdar Aah Sitapuri, Ramand Sagar, Chetan Anand, Vijay Anand, Dilip Kumar , Amrit Lal Nagar etc as regular guests.
MS Subbulaxmiji sang the Mangal-Geetam when my mother Smt. Susheela Narendra Sharma entered as a newly married bride and Sri Amritlal Nagarji’s wife Pratibhaji made Susheela stand on huge brass platter, filled with Kumkum filled water and she stepped like a Laxmi entering a home. Suraiyaji, the famous songstress, also sang songs to welcome the Bride! Other Guests in Baraat were famous Cine – stars like Sri Ashok Kumar, Dilip Kumar, music director Sri Anil Biswas, Bansuree vadak Sri Panna Lal Ghosh, director brothers Sri Chetan Anand & Vijay Anand , the famous Chhayawadi poet Sri Sumitra Nandan Pantji , Sri Ramananda Sagar ji , Urdu poet Safdar ” Aah ” sahab abd many other from Bombay Talkies and Hindi literary & film circle. Art fraternity, was also represented in large number as my mother Susheela was a Fine Arts graduate from Haldenker ‘s Institute . Their wedding card had an Easel shaped like a Lotus Leaf and a pen was inserted in the middle in form of a brush!
Narendra Sharma’s poetry blossomed along with his many film songs as years rolled on. The Progressive Patriotic tone eventually embraced the core values of humanity and paraphrased words from Indian philosophy with fascinating use of many rarely used meters in his later poems. So much so that his fellow poets said, ‘The Goddess of Poetry Mata Saraswati turned shy as a young maiden stood up from her White Lotus seat and took on the robes of Mother India and the poems of Narendra became heavy with the age old wisdom of the vedas and became extremely difficult ‘
Narendra Sharma confessed in a foreword from his Book ‘ Pyasa – Nirjhar ‘ (Thirsty Brook), “my earlier poems were the krishna paksh (waning Moon cycle) and my later poems are the transition towards Shukla Paksha (Waxing Moon)” ( Shukla paksha refers to the bright lunar fortnight or waxing moon in the Hindu calendar. [Shukla (Sanskrit: शुक्ल) is Sanskrit word for color white]
A Saint Poet in the tradition of our Bhakt Kavi Tulsi, Narsimh Mehta & Tukaram , poet Narendra Sharma remained young at heart till his last breath. He understood the changing social scene and the changing modern mind. Thus, he and Mr. Pai were first to introduce Ramayan and Mahabharat via Indrajaal comic strip for children.
Poet Narendra Sharma who conceived, planned, programmed and named ‘Vividh Bharati’ trying his hand with the recording machine as the Chief Producer of Vividh Bharati, Akashvani_ALL India Radio.
pic courtesy :Lavanya Shah and Poet Narendra Sharma MemorialSinger Late Shri Mukesh ji recorded Ram Charit Manas under his supervision for HMV. Among many other private albums penned by Pt. Sharma are Prem Bhakti Mukti and Ram Shyam Gun Gaan. The inaugural song for 1982 ASIAD Games atNew Delhi, ‘Swagatam Shubh Swagatam’; the inaugural song for Vividh Bharti composed by Pandit Ravi Shankar; ‘Nach Re Mayura’ composed by Anil Biswas and sung by Manna Dey; two of legendry Subrahmaniyam Bharti’s poems ,’Swasti ~ Shri’ & ‘Jaynaad’ and Kannada poet Shivruddrappa’s poem ‘Purush sukta’ in Hindi as ‘Nav Bharat Purush’; ‘Surdas A Minstrel of Shri Krishna’; Tagore’s poem ‘Shei din dujone’ transformed as ‘Nain Deewaane, ik nahin maane , kare man maani maane na ‘ in Suraiya’s lilting sweet voice; and Marathee Kavi Shri Tambe’s poem in Hindi emerged as ‘ Madhu mang na mere madhur meet’ sung by Shri Sudhir Phadke for Doordarshan in a LIVE telecast from Mumbai are among the many of Pt. Sharma’s gems that glitter on.
Nineteen books of poems like the most famous Prawasee Ke Geetm (Songs of a Traveler), Hans – Mala, (Garland of Swan), Rakt – chandan ( on Gandhiji ), Agni – Shasya (Child of Fire), Kadlee – Van, Draupadi , Uttar Jai, Bahut Raat Gaye etc. and short stories like Arti ki Thali, Kadvi Mithee Baatein, and innumerable radio plays, essays, film songs, dance ballets (for Sachin Shankar : Mermaid & Fishermen), etc. have been compiled in the 16 volume Pandit Narendra Sharma’s Sampoorna Rachnawali.
His guidance for Durga Sapt Shatee ‘ sung by Anuradha Paudwal ; concepts like MAHABHARAT T.V series & title songs like ‘Satyam Shivam Sunderam ‘ and ‘ Atha Shree Mahabharat Katha’; his speeches to graduating students at IIT Powai , Mumbai on Indian alphabets, OM symbol and many others; Essays on topics like History of Hindi Film Music & ‘Hindi Sahitya ka Itihas ‘ etc. remain with us. Do please see this link:
Geet Ka Safar : Sahitya se Film tak :
Today when I remember Papaji, many moments stumble out of my memory. I have written about them at this link:
Photos and feature by
Except for few exceptions, the movie had entirely Indian cast and had outstanding technical value ,but Bombay Talkies released in 1970 failed to carve out a niche with cine goers. The argument that as the movie was in English language , therefore could not succeed in India does not hold water , as movies from Hollywood are regularly screened here and people have been flocking to watch it at theaters . The movie was based upon a story/ screen play jointly written by Madam K Praver Jhabwala, a Parsee lady and Mr.James Ivory ,produced by Mr Ismail Merchant and directed by James Ivory, all based in U.K. Matinee idol and popular hero of Hindi films Mr Shashi Kapoor played the role of Vikram , hero of Hindi movies, who is philanderer and spoiled brat . Despite, he being married with beautiful Mala ( Aparna Sen) , he falls in love with a visiting journalist Lucia (Mrs Jennifer Kendall Kapoor). Extra martial affair, as we have experienced always ends with violence and in this case also the outcome was no different . Seems, the story of the movie did not appeal to the sensibilities and ethos of an average Indian person and so the movie could not be favored by cine-goers . The movie had many well known skillful artists of Hindi screen like Mr Utpal Dutt, Mr Pinchoo Kapoor, Nadira Ji, Mr. Iftekhar, Mr. Jalal Agha, Mr. Anwar Ali, Miss Helen etc .Brilliant photography by great camera man Subrato Mitra and art direction by A Ranga Raj gave a slick look to the movie . Mr. Zia Mohyeddin ,a British actor of Pakistani origin played a key role as a frustrated lover in the movie . Accomplished music composers Shankar Jaikishan provided the music for the movie . The way Hindi movies are shot and the Bollywood parties have been well captured by the director .To entertain the guest in the party sequence a mock fight between free style wrestler Mr Saudagar Singh and a masked wrestler was staged before the gathering ,which was hugely amusing. I must praise Mr Ivory ,the director of the movie ,who gave an interesting role to old time actor Mr Mirza Musharraf, who regaled Hindi audiences with his own brand of English. To find Mirza Saab in an English movie was a pleasant surprise . There were few more artists ,who had fleeting cameos in the movie and can be seen in the photographs shared below.
Photographs :- 1) Writer /director/actor and close friend of Mr Shashi Kapoor ,Mr Prayag Raaj ,played the role of a film director in the movie. 2) Mr Mirza Musharraf gladdened the hearts of viewers with his sudden appearance . 3) Yester year stars Sulochana Ji (Ruby Myers) also had a role in the film . Here she is seen with Mrs. Jennifer Kapoor. 4) In a sequence , recording of the song was filmed ,in which Mr Datta Ram , music composer was shown as singer . 5) In the party scene , popular junior artist Mr Darshan (Harbans Darshan) was also one of the guest . In this scene ,he is flanked by Mr Zia Mohyeddin & Mr Sukhdev (partly visible). Mr Sukhdev ,also known as S Sukhdev ,was a famous documentary films maker ,who made dozens of documentaries and many of his documentaries won national and international prizes . He also was directing Reshma Aur Shera for Sunil Dutt Saab. But due to creative differences with Mr. Dutt, Mr Sukhdev left the movie and Sunil Dutt Saab himself completed the movie after reshooting. Film makers are to be congratulated for recognizing the contribution made by Mr Darshan by including his name in the casting.
Raju Korti – the writer
After years of longing, I finally managed to catch up with legendary composer, singer and producer Hemant Kumar in 1984, just five years before he passed to leave an unfilled vacuum. He was well past his prime then but his composing and singing instincts were as impeccable. As a keen devotee of film music, thanks to those golden fifties, sixties and early seventies, I nursed an abiding regret of not being able to meet the man about whom I had read and heard so much. As I write this blog, there is a tangential satisfaction to that anguish that it is better late than never. I have no answer to why I didn’t write about the intensive interaction I had with him all these years but as an apology of a consolation, I am happy that this blog coincides with his 100th birthday today (June 16).
I will never forget the long, searching look Hemant Da gave me when we met. Dressed in white pyjamas and a long kurta, his six-plus feet lanky frame towered above my diminutive 5-plus feet. Having recovered from an acute heart condition, he looked pale, drawn and weak. Apparently, he was incredulous that someone who had just stepped into his thirties could even think of talking to a veteran who was been-there-done-that. I had to pull myself together before I lent credence to his apparent misgivings. He was accompanied by playback singer Aarti Mukherjee (of ‘Saara mora kajra chhudaya tune’ fame) who did not take any part in the three-hour conversation except occasional nods and smiles.
“Hemant Da, they always talk about the two faculties that you straddled so brilliantly – as a composer and a singer. So who’s better between the two?” I asked him. “I can’t put my finger on any one of them. Both are an inseparable parts of my musical instincts. Although, I began as a short story writer, my mind was into music. So I quit Engineering despite vehement opposition from my father. Mind you, one of my short stories won critical literary acclaim when I was barely sixteen but I was prepared to chuck that talent for Rabindra Sangeet.”
Hemant Da’s predilection towards his passion was right on target as within a year he became a singer for All India Radio, his deeply baritone vocals tailor-made to take on the depth of Tagore’s compositions. “In those days, my singing hero was Pankaj Mullick and I use to ape him so well that I was nicknamed Chhota Pankaj. But beyond this hero worship, I regret I could not get my teeth into rigorous classical music. It is a regret I will carry to my grave,” he said.
Having followed Hemant Da’s career closely, I could see that the lack of adequate classical music – by his own admission – was no handicap, especially in films. In the early forties, his contemporary was King Talat Mehmood whose chaste Urdu diction and rendition of ghazals had made him a darling of the masses. Mohammed Rafi, who later went on to become the premier singer of the industry, was just struggling to gain a toehold while Mukesh had just got going. Kishore Kumar was nowhere on the scene.
As someone carrying the stamp and legacy of Rabindra Sangeet, Hemant Da found himself at variance with the genre of film songs. That, however, wasn’t a handicap as he had the prime examples of Sachin Dev Burman and Salil Choudhury, both Dadas in every sense of the word. Another Dada was in the making to join this exalted company. “It was in the early forties that I hitched onto the Indian People’s Theatre Association (IPTA), a Left-leaning body which had composer and song writer Salil Da as one of its mainstays. I was in the midst of some musical greats and it was particularly satisfying that Rabindra Sangeet was a common chord that ran through us,” Hemant Da recalled.
“I wasn’t doing badly at all, composing for Bengali films, but when Filmistan made Anandmath in 1951 and I was asked to compose its music, I decided to explore Mumbai, the Mecca of film music. The film was a moderate success but a then raw Lata’s Vande Mataram struck perfect patriotic notes and made people sit up and take notice. Then came Shart where I did my own bidding with Na ye chaand hoga.”
“But wasn’t this a turning point for you? Dev Anand happened,” I asked him.
“Na ye chaand hoga was just the platform. Ye raat ye chaandni (Jaal), Chup hai dharti chup hai chaand sitaare and Teri duniya mein jeene se (House No 44), Hai apna dil to awaara (Solva Saal) and Na tum hame jaano (Baat Ek Raat Ki) happened because Burman Dada was convinced I could fit on Dev Anand’s lips,” Hemant Da reminisced, pointing out that in the years to come, he steered himself with his own talent through Naagin, Duniya Jhukti Hai, Bees Saal Baad, Bin Badal Barsaat, Kohra and Anupama. The interesting aside here is this was the same Burman Dada who before being a guide to Hemant Da was contemplating to quit and go back to Calcutta because the scene in Mumbai didn’t appeal to his Bengali ethos.
Such was Hemant Da’s unflinching belief in the potential of Rabindra Sangeet that in those days he was considered as only next to Mullick in the intricacies of that genre ahead of seniors like Burman Dada and Salil Da. This hierarchy was also with its anomalies. Burman Da understood little or nothing of Hindi. He needed to understand the mood of the song and its words written in Bengali before he could employ his compositional genius. Hemant Da was in comparison much more comfortable, having come from the Hindi hinterland of Benares. He was also very much in tune with the musical philosophy of Salil Da and although it didn’t show much in his (Hemant Da’s) compositions, he had as much flair and understanding of the symphonies, notably among them being Bach.
Naagin made Hemant Da a household name. For many, that was no big surprise as composer Ravi who he assisted for many years, told him that given his talent, it was time he started going his own way. The film’s feet-tapping music with a string of Lata hits as also his solos and duets, was a revelation as against the three-hour visual atrocity on the viewers. People rather went to ‘hear’ the movie than ‘see’ it. The film won him a Filmfare Award. But Hemant Da preferred to dwell on mid-1955 when he sang four solos for the legendary Uttam Kumar. It was the beginning of an enduring friendship and their chemistry showed they were the most poplar singer-actor combination holding an unchallenged sway for almost a decade.
Hemant Da lapsed into nostalgia as I mentioned to him that period when he was composing for a lot of Bengali and Hindi films while jealously guarding his roots in Rabindra music. “I was at the peak of my career then as a composer and singer. The best was I was singing for maestros like Nachiket Ghosh, Robin Chatterjee and Salil Choudhury. Some of my songs were remakes or improvisations of the Bengali original. I also hobnobbed with production. Bees Saal Baad, Kohra and Khamoshi were produced by me. Neel Akasher Neeche was directed by Mrinal Sen and went on to bag the President’s Gold Medal after an unsavoury controversy.” Bees Saal Baad and Kohra forged a wonderful relationship with Biswajeet.
After almost an hour, Hemant Da was coming to the perception that for a youngster, I had done my home work fairly well as I mentioned his one song after the other in the course of the meeting. A faint smile creased his face when I mentioned to him that in the bevy of beauties that he sang, my favourites happened to be the 1955 Sardar Malik beauty filmed on Prem Nath ‘Mai garibo ka dil hoon watan ki zubaan’ (Aab-e Hayat) and a duet with Geeta Dutt from Detective (1958) ‘Mujh ko tum jo mile ye jahaan mil gaya’ (Fabulous use of Hawaii guitar). He had a word of lament for Mukul Roy, Geeta’s brother and the composer of that dulcet duet. “He was such a talented music director and understood the nuances of film music so well but it beats me why his career didn’t pick up.”
In an era when he rubbed shoulders with the likes of Shankar Jaikishen, OP Nayyar, C Ramchandra, Naushad, Madan Mohan, Roshan, Hemant Da did not even once go in for lavish orchestrations. His accompaniments were minimal and the song carried itself on the weight of its sweetness. Hemant Da was particularly delighted when I pointed out how sublime Lata sounded in ‘Chhup gaya koi re door se pukar ke’ in that obscure film Champakali (1960). He seemed touched when I said it could give Madan Mohan’s ‘Chaand maddham hai’ (Railway Platform/1957) a stiff competition. “I think Burman Dada’s influence rubbed off on me. Even when it came to the choice of singers. I remember how he had singled me out to sing for Dev Anand when everyone else felt that my voice wouldn’t suit his persona. See how Burman Da stood vindicated. In my career as composer, my choices have been guided by the demands of the song per se rather than factors like who was lip-synching the song and how many instruments I must employ to embellish it.”
“You tuned so well with Burman Dada and sang 12-13 songs for Dev Anand. What happened thereafter? I asked him. Hemant Da paused a little but the gentleman in him came to the fore. “I don’t know what happened after Baat Ek Raat Ki. He never called and I didn’t ask. I didn’t think too much about it and got busy with my own work.” Was it that on Burman Dada’s exacting scale Hemant Da’s voice had lost its baritone edge? Unlikely, as you know that the quality of his voice was still replete with the same refined sensitivity. I can vouch as I heard him in flesh and blood.
“I used Mohammed Rafi and Kishore Kumar sparingly even at the peak of their careers. For that matter, I sang my own song only when it was absolutely called for. I shared a great working rapport with them and I was devastated when I lost two dear younger brothers – Rafi and Uttam Kumar – in a span of just one week. They were giants. Why didn’t I work with them more? I loved Rafi’s Dil ki aawaaz bhi sun (Humsaaya), Manna’s Piya maine kya kiya (Us Paar), Mukesh’s Woh tere pyaar ka gham. Even an otherwise exuberant Kishore was polite when he teamed up with me. He knew exactly what I wanted to deliver in Kashti ka khamosh safar hai (Girl Friend). I have memories of Rafi walking up to me and wanting to know the pronunciation of some Bengali words before he sang those songs. He was one singer who knew how to use the mike well – like when to sing from the throat and when to sing from his navel.”
For all his modesty, Hemant Da could run a quick temper at times and did not hesitate to mince words. He revealed how he had warned Guru Dutt against the latter’s penchant for changing his singers and composers at the last minute, citing the example of the 1962 classic Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam that had adultery as its theme. “I agreed only after Guru gave me an undertaking saying that only I was equipped to handle the music since it was set in the backdrop of Bengal.” History was made before it was written.
For a man on whom the Government of India issued a stamp posthumously in 2016 and had won a spate of awards and recognition, including two national Awards, Hemant Da didn’t make much of this memorabilia. He never mentioned any of his songs when asked about his favourites. Having refused Padmashri in the 1970s, he also shunned Padma Bushman which was three years after I met him. More than three decades after his death music companies keep releasing his albums, repackaging his old songs. There are dime a dozen who copy Rafi, Kishore, Mukesh and don’t admit so but I personally know many who take a great delight in unabashedly conceding that they love to imitate Hemant Da’s style but are nowhere near.
Close your eyes and hear the Kishore Kumar composed 1964 beauty from Door Gagan Ki Chhaon Mein:
‘Raahi tu mat ruk jaana, toofan se mat ghabrana
Kabhi to milegi teri manzil
Kahin door gagan ki chhaon mein..’
It may have been incommoded by KK’s own ‘Jin raaton ki bhor nahi hai’ but has in sharp contrast hope and tranquility that make the song a quintessential Hemant Kumar from a school of music that qualifies to be a university of its own.
PS: It needed a Hemant Kumar song for a film to be qualified as ‘haunting’. And since the man was too modest to speak about his own songs, I will labour over my favourite HK solos and duets which I am sure might raise eyebrows for skipping songs which have hit higher popularity charts. Partly, my choices are influenced because you don’t get to hear them much. So here I go.
1) Mai garibo ka dil hoon watan ki zubaan (Aab-e-Hayat/1955/Solo)
2) Mujh ko tum jo mile, ye jahaan mil gaya (Detective/1958/With Geeta Dutt)
3) Aa neele gagan tale pyaar hum kare (Baadshah/1954/With Lata)
4) Baharo se pucho nazaaro se pucho dil kyo deewana mera ho gaya (Fashion/1959/With Lata)
5) Nai manzil nayi raahen naya hai karvaan apna (Hill Station/1957/With Lata)
6) Raahi tu mat ruk jaana (Door Gagan Ki Chhaon Mein/1964/Solo)
7) Dekho wo chaand chup ke karta hai kya ishaare (Shart/1954/With Lata)
8) Zindagi kitni khubsoorat hai (Bin Badal Barsaat/1963/Solo HK version)
9) Jab jaag uthe armaan to kaise neend aaye (Bin Badal Barsaat/1963/Solo)
10) Ye nayan dare dare, ye jaam bhare bhare (Kohra/1964/Solo)
English translation of a Marathi feature by Chandu Kale
13 March 1986. I remember the day very well indeed.
At about 8.30 in the evening. My wife and I were on our scooter, returning home via the Fergusson College Road. We saw Prasad Sanwatsarkar and Pradeep Pathak near Vaishali Restaurant, so we stopped. They asked me whether I knew Shankar ji personally. I said “Eh? How would I know such great people?” They were saying, Shankar ji is in Pune, so could we meet him?
I remembered that I had the opportunity to talk to another God of mine, composer C. Ramchandra alias Annasaheb, just on the footpath opposite Vaishali. Ten years ago. I had spoken to him, got his signature. He had asked me to come to his place, so we could talk. But I had not dared to go to the great man’s place. Never repeat that mistake again!
I told them I will have a quick dinner and we would meet at that very spot in an hour.
We three Musketeers set out on our campaign. These detectives had found out the information where Shankar ji’s house was in Model Colony. We reached the action spot.
His driver was sitting there at the gate. He informed us that Shankar ji had gone out for dinner with a friend. Would be back … some time. No idea when.
We asked him whether Shankar ji would talk to us. He said that would depend on his mood. Big help!
We said OK, we will wait, for however long it takes. Hopefully we would get to talk to him. If Shankar ji were to be in foul mood, he could drive us away, but at least we will have met our God.
Around 10.30 p.m., a white Mercedes Benz car appeared and Shankar ji alighted from it. I summoned up my courage and said “Namaskar, Sir. We are your fans. We started to learn to play accordion inspired by your songs. We were hoping to talk to you.”
Shankar ji shook hands with us, said “It is nice to hear that you are interested in music.”
We were still hesitating. We thought we should now make ourselves scarce before being shooed off. So I said “We are happy we could see you in person and even talk to you. We will go now.”
Shankar ji says “Oh, no, no. Where are you going? Come in, we will have a chat.”
I said “Sir, it is late, it’s almost 11 p.m. We would not like to detain you.” He replied “Arre that’s no problem. You fans give us so much love. We must reciprocate.”
We all went inside. Chatted for a good two hours. Prasad took photos. I asked him many questions that were bothering me. “Is Sun Saiba Sun your tune? You have nt used the accordion in a long time. How do you think up such varied and innovative music pieces? Who decides the instrumentation? Who thinks up the counter melody? You or Sebastian? Do you specify the table theka and other rhythms yourselves or leave that to Dattaram? Other so-called composers use your tunes, your orchestration style left right and centre. Can’t you file a suit on them?”
Shankar ji just laughed and said “Oh forget it. Who is going to run after these idiots? And if they steal our tunes, it just proves they idiocy. And ultimately, people know whose tune it is. It only amplifies our name.”
When we looked at our watch, it was 12.30. Past midnight!! We said let’s go. It’s nice that he gave us our time without hesitation, but we shouldn’t impose ourselves on him too much.
Shankar ji came to the door to see us off. He let us take selfies with him, turn by turn. He gave us his phone number in Mumbai. Said we could come to meet him any time.
That ‘any time’ came up soon. Tabassum had interviewed Shankar ji on TV for “Phool khile hain gulshan gulshan”. Next day, I rang up Shankar ji. He asked me if I had videotaped it. I said of course. He requested me to give him a copy of the interview. That was cue enough. We three Musketters along with a fourth one, Bhalchandra Wani, set off for Mumbai that week-end, met him at CCI, Churchgate. He spoke to us freely, hummed to us a couple of pieces he had just thought up. He took us out to Hotel Samrat for lunch. Chinese. Favourite of his. Chatted a lot again.
Satisfied, we returned to Pune.
I visited SJ music rooms at Famous Studio at Tardeo 4-5 times after that. He had also come to Pune once and took me wherever he was going. I was with him for two days.
26 April 1987. Prasad called up. Have I heard the news? Shankar ji is no more.
I was stunned. We felt as if we had lost our elder brother.
Since then, our Mayoorpankh Group meets every year on this date. We play songs, discuss them, tell each other stories we might have heard recently. No other composer is allowed to be discussed on that day.
This bond will not break.