This feature is taken from internet, that is why the blogger has not even touched misspelled words nor agree/disagree with the views shared by its writer.
Shankar Jaikishan were among the greatest musicians to have graced Hindi cinema – they were exceedingly popular and 75 per cent of their films were musical hits
Distributors play a very critical role in the film industry. There were no distributors when the first feature film, Raja Harishchandra, was released in 1913. With the advent of talkies in 1931 when Ardeshair Irani’s, Alam Ara was released, distributors became a vital force. They decided to sell the film on the basis of studios or banners. Even though films started selling in the name of actors, the films of the 1950s and 60s were sold in the name of a music duo. This magical duo was Shankar Jaikishan.
Shankar Jaikishan started their career with Prithviraj Kapoor’s Prithvi Theatre. In 1949, Raj Kapoor (Prithviraj Kapoor’s eldest son) acted in Mehboob Khan’s magnum opus Andaz with Nargis and Dilip Kumar. He was impressed by Naushad’s music in the film. Andaz was a musical jubilee hit. Raj Kapoor had decided to have music like Andaz in his next film Barsaat, the same year. Ram Ganguly was its composer. Soon, differences between Raj Kapoor and Ganguly developed and Shankar Jaikishan were brought in.
Barsaat had Lata Mangeshkar, who was trying hard to establish herself as a playback singer. Shankar had heard her earlier and brought her to give playback in Barsaat. Lata sang all the eleven numbers of Barsaat, nine solos and two duets with Mukesh. For the first time, Lata gave playback for Nargis, Nimmi and Bimla. Barsaat was a blockbuster. Its music stirred the nation. Shankar Jaikishan scaled the dizzy heights with their maiden film.
Shankar Jaikishan, Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra and Lata became the permanent team of R K Films. Barsaat’s music became a trendsetter. It is often said that Shankar Jaikishan gave their best to R K Films. They remained loyal to Raj Kapoor and indebted to too as he had given them their maiden break. Between 1951 and 52, Shankar Jaikishan also gave scintillating music in films outside R K Films.
Their third film was Bhagwan Das Verma’s Badal (1951) starring Prem Nath, Madhubala. Who can forget the compositions of the duo, Main rahi bhatakne wala hoon (Mukesh) Unse pyaar ho gaya dil mere kho gaya (Lata) and Dulcet duet Ae dil na mujhse chhipa kya hua (Lata/Mukesh). In the same year, Kishore Shahu’s Kali Ghata was released and the duo showed their versatility with Dil mein tu mere dil mein tu, Humse na puchho koi pyaar kya hai, Maine kya kiya sitam unke sitam ne loot liya, Ille bel laa illaa din hain pyare pyare and a romantic duet Ho madhur Milan hai sajna. The film did average business at the box office but was remembered for its hit numbers.
Shankar Jaikishan were very particular and never compromised with their singers. They gave an opportunity to C H Aatma in Dalsukh Pancholi’s Nagina. C H Aatma sang hit iconic numbers in typical K L Saigal style, Rooo main sagar ke kinare and Dil beqraar hai mera, Ek sitara hai aakash mein, Lata also sang her unforgettable sad number Tune hi mere zakhm-e-Jigar ko chhoo liya.
Seeing their popularity, legendary Amiya Chakraborty signed Shankar Jaikishan for his super hit film Daag (1952), starring Dilip Kumar, Nimmi. Shankar Jaikishan took Talat Mehmood for the first time to do playback for Dilip Kumar. They made three versions of their evergreen number Ae mere dil kahi aur chal in happy and sad versions in Talat’s voice and also in Lata’s voice.
In 1953, Raj Kapoor made a film on a Tuberculosis patient, Aah, which was directed by Raja Nawathe along with Nargis and Pran. Unlike Awara and Barsaat, the film didn’t do well at the box office. Even the re-edited version with a new end failed to impress.
In the same year, Shankar Jaikishan gave music in seven films – Aas, Aurat, Boot Polish, Mayur Pankh, Naya Ghar, Patita and Shikast. They gave enchanting melodies in these films. Zulm ki nagri mein (Lata) in Aas, Naino se nain hue chaar, Aa sun le mere dil ki pukaar, Dard-E-jigar thaher zara and Bewafa ne de diya ghum zindgani loot li (Lata) in Aurat.
Shankar Jaikishan composed a variety of songs in R K’s Boot Polish, Nanhe munhe bachche teri mutthi mein kaya hai (Asha/Rafi, chorus) Chali kaun si desh gujriya tu saj dhaj ke (Asha/Talat), a light number Lapak jhapak tu aa re badarwa (Manna De) and the title song Thehr zara o jane wale babu (Asha/Manna Dey/Madhubala Jhavri). There was also Ja re ja ranjo ghum ke andhere tu jaa (Lata) in Naya Ghar.
They gave all-time great numbers in Patita – Kisi ne apna bana ke mujhko, Mitti se khelte ho bar bar kis liye (Lata), Andhe jahan ke andhe rasre, Tujhe apne pass bulati hai teri duniya and Hain sabse madhur wo geet (Talat) and evergreen melodious romantic duets in Lata and Hemant’s voice Yaad kiya dil ne kahan ho tum. Shikast too had classical-based numbers in Raag Chandrakaush, Jab jab phool khile tujhe yaad kiya humne (Talat/Lata) and Sapno ki suhani duniya ko (Talat).
Surprisingly, in 1954, only two of their films released – Pooja and Badshah. Both the films flopped but Shankar Jaikishan gave immortal the romantic duet, set in Raag Bheem Palasi, Aa neel gagan tale pyaar hum karein (Lata/Hemant) in Badshah.
In 1955, they came back with their magical touch in Amiya Chakarverti’s Seema starring Balraj Sahni, Nutan and Shobha Khote. Their glorious gems were in their favorite Bhairvi, Suno chhoti se gudiya ki lambi kahani which starts with Ustad Ali Akbar Khan’s Sarod, and the enthralling melodies Baat baat pe rutho na, Manmohna bade jhuthe (Lata). Manna Dey’s all-time great Tu pyaar ka sagar hai and Rafi’s heart rendering Kahan ja raha hai tu ae jane wale and Hume bhi de do sahara (Rafi/Chorus) in Qawwali style.
Shankar Jaikishan, besides Raj Kapoor, worked with almost all major directors. They were in a position to dictate their own terms. They even declined the offers made by B R Chopra and V Shantaram. They did films of all genres and periods.
Shankar Jaikishan ruled the industry for more than two decades. They were at their best in creativity and versatility. If they were responsible for getting their first FilmFare Award for Sab kuch sikha humne (Mukesh) in Anari (1959) though Mukesh was their favorite, they got best of Rafi in Chahe mujhe koi jangli kahe, Ahsan tera hoga mujh par in Junglee. Ae gulbadan in Professor, Tumse se accha kaun hai in Janwar, Yaad na jaye bite dino ki in Dil Ek Mandir and Dil ke jharokhe mein in Brahmchari. After Dil Ek Mandir they started working separately, but they kept their credit intact.
Jaikishan gave scintillating melodies in Arzoo. After completing the music for Ramanand Sagar, Jaikishan left for London. When Sagar wanted to add one Qawwali, Jaikishan recommended Shankar’s name. Similarly, all songs of Teesri Kasam were recorded by Shankar.
When Jaikishan was asked to score the background music of Teesri Kasam, he realised after listening to the song that it lacked the touch of Shankar Jaikishan and suggested Shailendra, who was the producer and lyricist of the film, to include two more songs and composed two numbers penned by Hasrat Jaipuri, Mare gaye gulpham and Duniya banana wale. Though the film didn’t do well initially, it later became a Bollywood milestone.
In the 1970s, film music was changing very fast. The golden days for the trio of Dilip, Raj and Dev were over. Shammi Kapoor and Rajendra Kumar were also fading out. The new generation of Rajesh Khanna, Jitendra and Amitabh Bachchan had taken over. Rajesh Khanna preferred R D Burman but he appeared in a guest appearance and sang his iconic number in Kishore’s voice Zindgi ek safar hai suhana which was Jaikishan’s last song.
Jaikishan scummed to cirrhosis on September 1971.
In spite of differences, this was a big blow to Shankar. He didn’t take any assignment for a long period and as a result, he lost many films. Even his mentor Raj Kapoor replaced him with Laximikant Pyarelal in Bobby. Shankar’s last notable film was Sanyasi. Shankar died on April 26, 1987.
During their reign, they were also accused of plagiarism. They had copied music from Egyptian, Arabian, Italian and even tunes of Gypsy music but one thing in their defense was that they Indianised the music so well that it appeared original. They revolutionised the concept of an orchestra. They were responsible for popularising film music. 75 per cent of their films were resounding hits and many celebrated golden and silver jubilees.
They were winners of nine Filmfare Awards for Chori Chori (1956), Anari (1959), Dil Apna Aur Preet Prayee (1960), Professor (1962), Suraj (1966), Brahmchari (1968), Pahchan (1970), Mera Naam Joker (1971) and Baiman (1972). They were also recipients of Cine Goers Association Award, Bombay Film Journalist Award and Sur Singar Sansad. They were conferred the Padma Shree in 1968.
Today Shankar and Jaikishan are not amidst us but their rich legacy of music will keep them alive in memories of music lovers for many years to come.
We have seen people come and people go, but very seldom do we come across a person who is the most evolved and complete. His insatiable interest and amazing talent in music helped him to totally focus and dedicate his entire life for his passion. He is non other than the legendary Shankar.
The master musician was the candle that shone bright to shed light around. The kind hearted and generous human was a caring relative, modest, loyal and proud gentleman, all rolled into one exemplary human being. He was a well grounded man who did not allow his super success get to his head. By the front door of his home and in his car, Shankar kept pairs of his old shoes to always remind him of his modest beginning. For that alone, my respect for the gentlemen soared very high.
Politics and showbiz are volatile fields. You are up one day and down the other. There are no permanent relationships here, only fair weather friends. With his close friends, Shailendra and Jaikishan gone, Shankar had to face the hardships of abandonment of those whom he thought were the closest. But the brave man weathered it all. His immense strength kept him going, never having to bow to anyone, never having to compromise.
Today, on his birth anniversary, it pains me no end to think that the media had deliberately chosen to ignore the vast and best contribution that he, along with Jaikishan, had made to the music world. The banner he helped create with his buddy is ignored intentionally. People might forget the great composer, but his music will never be forgotten.
Happy Birthday, Shankar!! You will continue to live in our hearts and souls forever.
सामान्यतः कम फिल्मों में अच्छा संगीत देना संभव है परन्तु अधिक से अधिक फिल्मों में लोकप्रियता की बुलंदियों वाला संगीत अविराम व सतत 21 वर्षों तक देना ईश्वरीय वरदान है कहा जा सकता है। ऐसे वरदान से ईश्वर ने संगीतकार शंकर जयकिशन को नवाजा था। अपने नायाब संगीत द्वारा देश के साथ विदेशों में भी धूम मचा देने वाले वे प्रथम संगीतकार थे। लोगों में सदैव जिज्ञासा बनी रही कि आखिर इतनी लोकप्रिय धुनों मे से कोन धुन किसकी है। यह जिज्ञासा जयकिशन जी की मृत्यु के बाद शंकर जी विरोधी समूह ने और बढ़ा दी। वे सिद्ध करना चाहते थे कि धुन जय किशन ही तैयार करते थे । लोगो में भी यह जानने की इच्छा प्रबल होने लगी कि आखिर जयकिशन की रचनाएं कोन सी है। कुछ पुष्ट जानकारियों के आधार पर ज्ञात होता है कि निम्नांकित कुछ लोकप्रिय धुनों को जयकिशन ने ही रचा था – 1 जीना यहां मरना यहां(मेरा नाम जोकर) 2 तुम जो हमारे मीत न होते ( आशिक) 3आजा सनम मधुर चांदनी में हम( चोरी चोरी) 4 आवाज दे के हमें तुम बुलाओ(प्रोफेसर) 5 इस रंग बदलती दुनियां में (राजकुमार) 6 तेरी प्यारी प्यारी सूरत को (ससुराल) 7 ए मेरे दिल कहीं और चल ( दाग) 8 सनों छोटी सी गुड़िया की ये कहानी(सीमा) 9 दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई (दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई) 10 देखा है तेरी आंखों में प्यार ही (प्यार ही प्यार) 11 आए बहार बन के लुभा के (वसंत बहार) 12 दिल के झरोखे में तुझ को (,ब्रम्हचारी) 13 ओ मेरे शाहे खूब ओ मेरी (लव इन टोकियो) 14 कहे झूम झूम रात ये सुहानी ( लव मैरिज) 15 अजी रूठ कर अब कहां जाइएगा(आरज़ू) 16 रसिक बलमा (,चोरी चोरी) 17 ये मेरा प्रेम पत्र पढ़कर(संगम) ये गीत जयकिशन की संगीत रचनाओं की झलकी मात्र है। परन्तु आम जनता श्रोता उन्हें उन्हें एकीकृत रूप में देखता है। भारतीय हिन्दी फिल्म संगीत के गौरवशाली इतिहास के पृष्ठों पर जिन महान संगीतकारों के नाम स्वर्णिम अक्षरों अंकित है उनकी जगमगाती पंक्ति में शंकर जयकिशन का नाम निर्विवादत: सर्वत्र मुख व अग्रणी रूप से परि गणित किया जस सकता है। उनके जादुई संगीत ने जहां एक ओर परंपरा और आधुनिकता के मध्य अभूतपूर्व सेतु का निर्माण किया वहीं दूसरी ओर अपनी विलक्षण प्रतिभा द्वारा वाद्ययंत्रों के कुशल इस्तेमाल,नूतन प्रयोगों,भावानुकूल गीतों के संयोजन तथा शास्त्रीय व पाष्छ्यात संगीत के बेजोड़ तालमेल द्वारा जून अनगिनत सरस,मधुर, कर्ण प्रिय व मनमोहक कालजयी गीतों का सृजन किया।वे न केवल भारत वरन् समूची दुनियां में फैले बेशुमार संगीत प्रेमियों के लिए सचमुच बेहद अनमोल धरोहर है। बहुत कम प्रतिभा ऐं ऐसी होती है जिनको कालजयी होने का सौभाग्य नियति प्रदान करती है।शंकर जयकिशन का शुमार ऐसी ही कालजयी प्रतिभाओं में किया जा सकता है।वे न केवल अपने समय के सर्वाधिक लोकप्रिय संगीतकार रहे बल्कि यह कहना किंचित भी अतिशयोक्तिपूर्ण न होगा कि उनका मधुर संगीत आज भी प्रासंगिक होकर अपनी लोकप्रियता को बरकरार रखे हुए है।उनके द्वारा रचित बेमिसाल गीत आज भी दुनियां भर के संगीत प्रेमियों के कानों में रस घोलते है।
एक लोक प्रसिद्ध कहावत है कि जोड़ियां ऊपरवाला ही बनाता है ।शादी के संदर्भ में ख्यात यह कहावत संगीतकार जोड़ी शंकर जयकिशन पर सौ फीसदी खरी उतरती है। निः संदेह यह जोड़ी संगीत की नैसर्गिक प्रतिभा से संपन्न थी और नियति ने ही दोनों को मिलता भी। शंकर जी जहां नृत्य कला,सितार,पियानिं एवं अकोर्डियान बजाने में पारंगत थे तो वहीं जयकिशन जी हारमोनियम वादन में सिद्ध हस्त थे।हिंदी फिल्म संगीत की दुनियां में इस जोड़ी का मिलन ‘ मणि कांचन ‘ सिद्ध हुआ। उल्लेखनीय है कि जयकिशन दाया भाई (4 नवंबर 1932) मुंबई काम की तलाश में आए थे जहां उनकी मुलाकात दक्षिण आंध्र प्रदेश(तेलंगाना) से आए शंकर सिंह रामसिंह(15 अक्टूबर 1922)से गुजराती फिल्म निर्माता चंद्रवदन काम के सिसिले में हुई।शने: शने: यह मुलाकात प्रगाढ़ मेत्री में तब्दील हो गई।विपरीत स्वभाव इसके इन दो व्यक्तित्वों का संगीत के प्रति समर्पित भाव उभयनिष्ठ था। गठीले बदनवाले शंकर जहां धीर गंभीर स्वभाव के थे तो वहीं जयकिशन जी मस्तमौला प्रकृति के आकर्षक व्यक्तित्व के धनी इंसान थे।, शंकर जयकिशन के बृहद संगीत के कई आयाम है जो उनको अन्य संगीतकारों स्की तुलना में विशिष्ठ स्थान आसीन करते है।उनके बेमिसाल संगीत को कतिपय शीर्षकों के तहत वर्गीकृत करते हुए सुगमतापूर्वक समझा जा सकता है। ये शीर्षक इस प्रकार ही सकते है जैसे शास्त्रीय रागों पर आधारित गीत,लोक संगीत आधारित,सुकुमार भावाभिव्यक्ती प्रधान गीत,प्रेम व रूमानी भाववाले ,विरह दर्द वाले गीत,समूह गीत,नृत्य प्रधान गीत,ग़ज़ल शैली गीत,कव्वाली शैली गीत,भारतीय संगीत आधारित नृत्य गीत,पाध्छ्यात संगीत आधारित नृत्य गीत,भजन रूपी गीत, बाल गीत,प्रश्न/पहेली नुमा गीत, छेड़ छाड़ वाले गीत,हास्य प्रधान गीत,अनोखे/अटपटे बोल वाले गीत,भारतीय व पाष्छ्यात फ्यूजन गीत आदि। समग्रहतः यह सुस्पष्ट होता है कि शंकर जयकिशन के बहुरंगी गीतों का एक व्यापक अत्यंत और विस्तृत संसार है जिसने विविध भावों को अनुकूल संगीत धुनों के साथ कुशलता पूर्वक संवारा गया है।इं मनमोहक व कर्णप्रिय गीतों का कलेवर सजाने संवारने में इस संगीत निपुण जोड़ी के दक्ष निर्देशन की भूमिका प्रमुखत : रही है। लेकिन विविध का संगीत नियोजन करने में दत्ता राम व अरेंजर सेबेस्टियन की भूमिका भी अहम हुआ करती थी साथ ही विभिन्न वाद्ययंत्र वादकों का महती योगदान रहा है,जिनके वाद्यों ने शंकर जयकिशन के गीतों की प्राण वान बनाकर लोकप्रियता के बेमिसाल आयाम प्रदान किए शंकर जयकिशन के विशाल ऑर्केस्ट्रा में एक से बढ़कर कुशल वाद्य यंत्र वादकों का शुमार रहा । कुछ के नाम उस प्रकार है – 1 पन्नालाल घोष (बांसुरी) 2 लाला गंगवाने ( ढोलक) 3 उस्ताद अली अकबर खां (सरोद) 4 पं राम नारायण (सारंगी) 5 उस्ताद रईस खां (सितार ) 6 एस हज़ारा सिंह(इलेक्ट्रिक गिटार) 7 मनोहारी सिंह ( सैक्सोफोन) 8 चिक चॉकलेट (ट्रंपेट) 9 वी बलसारा (हारमोनियम) 10 गुडी सिरवाई( अकिर्डियान) 11 सुमित मित्रा (अकोर्डियान) आदि इत्यादि। कुल मिलाकर यह कहा जा सकता है कि शंकर जयकिशन का ऑर्केस्ट्रा अत्यंत समृद्ध था उसके भीतर विलक्षण प्रतिभा वाले तथा अपने अपने वाद्यों के वादन में दक्ष कलाकार शामिल थे। इन अति निपुण व दक्ष कलाकारों के समन्वय व सहभागिता से शंकर जयकिशन ने अनगिनत अमर गीतों का सृजन किया।
I came to Mumbai to try my luck in the industry.One of my friend introduced me to Bal Parte.Actually his name was Jaikumar but he was popularly known as Bal Parte. Parte was assistant to Kalyanji Anandji and Usha Khanna.One day, he called me to his music room at warli and gave me some notations to play.He liked my playing and promised me to call for K.A.Recording.He kept his word. I had hardly played two three recordings when this incident happened. It was K.A.’s recording at film centre.I thought as usual I will play with orchestra but Parteji called me aside and asked me if I can play song with artist, as regular song violinist Narvekarji was not coming due to health problem.Parteji knew that I learned Indian as well western notation.To play song violin one has to have knowledge of classical music.I said I can try. I took my violin and went to singers cabin. After some time Rafisahab came followed by Ashaji.It was for the first time i saw both the legends.I said ” Namaste ” to both but inwardly I was nervous.Kalyanjibhai explained them the tune.I checked my notations.Within half an hour both the artists were ready and all of us went to the centre of the hall for rehearsal with full orchestra.Parte and Frank farnand were counducting the orchestra.Babla was looking after rhythm section.When rehearsal was over, artists wore headphones and went in the cabin.They were given placing.I too wore headphone and full mike rehearsal started.So far it was going well. After some time Anandjibhai came out of the recording room and said, he found the song dull.He told the singers”Let us make the key half note high if both of you are comfortable.” Inwardly I become more nervous as I was not accustomed to such a sudden change.When reharsal started,I was fumbling with notes.What I was playing went directly in singers earphones.Ashaji stopped singing and told some one”Bal la bolv”(call Bal).Parteji came promptly.She said “where is Narvekarji?”He tu konala pakdun anle aahe ?”Where did you get this guy? Her words entered my ears like hot lead. I become totally numb.Rafisahab told her that he is new and we would manage.After some time when Ashaji went out of the cabin to talk to someone,Rafisahab came near me.He put his hand on my back and said”koi baat nahi.Iska dimag jaldi garam hota hai.”Some how the recording was over. This is how I met Rafisahab for the time.This small incident tells a lot about Rafisahab’s nature.I will never forget this incident but it was blessings in disguise. I started practicing more and more. Six hours a day.For years I continued practiceing. Years went by.Slowly I established myself. Started playing with almost all music directors. My first love was to play with orchestra but when need arised ,I played songs too.On many occasions I have to play with Ashaji.There was no Trace of past incident.She was comfortable with me.She would chat with me freely. I played many songs with Rafisahab too. Anil Mohile who later became arranger used to play song violin with me.Together we both played many songs with different singers. Rafisahab,Lataji,Ashaji,all of them had amazing memory. It would take hardly half an hour for them to pick up the song. Most of the songs would be recorded within four hours. As the recording techniques developed, it increased the time required for recording instead of reducing it. Rafisahab was a perfect gentleman. I’ve never seen him getting angry or being rude to anybody. Ashaji was exactly the opposite. If not in mood, she would make life miserable for the music directors or whoever in the range. I had seen her leaving the sets and music directors running after her. She is very out spoken but her anger would not last long. On the contrary Rafisahab never got angry. No matter how many retake’s he had to give he would sing till the music director was fully satisfied. Only once he lost his cool at the recording of Khayyamsahab.Khayyamsahab has habit of taking many retakes.He is never satisfied easily but that particular day after many retakes he was still not getting satisfied.He made Rafisahab sing more than 32 times.Everybody was tired.Rafisahab’s face was turning red but see his decency.Another person at his place would have walked out but he sangtill Khayyamsahab was satisfied.When Khayyamsahab came out of the recording room,he told him not to call himAgain and he never sang with Khayyamsahab again. I remember him coming in his green fiat. Later he used chevrolet models. His brother in law Zahir would always accompany him. He was kind of his secretary. He was very friendly with us.He told us many unknown facts of Rafisahab’s greatness in his personal life. Rafisahab financially helped many needy musicians, singers even music directors who were old and out of work. For some ‘Lifafa’ would be ready and reach that person every month so he does not have to come to collect it. He did it all of this very secretly.We came to know about is only because of zahir. For the poor he was a ‘Masiha. Once a musician who used to play with him wanted to buy a property.He set his eyes on one particular property which he liked very much but he has hardly twenty-five percent of the saving with him.He told his difficulty to his friend who advised him to approach Rafisahab.He was hesitant as the amount was not small but his friend convinced him to try.He went to Rafisahab’s house.He told him the reason.Without asking a single question Rafisahab went inside and came back with bundle of notes.That musician cried.In due course of time he returned the amount but it takes golden heart to help others. Memory is like a small child walking on a sea-shore. You never know which pebble he will pick and treasure for the rest of his life. I also have some pebbles that I have stored .Today is Rafisahab,s death anniversary so i want to share these incidents with you which happened long time ago. Actualy I am not an eye witness to the incidents but i got first hand information from my musician friends who always accompanied Rafisahab. Even in his famous world tour also he accompanied him. A regular player in film industry too. Before we go on with the incident, let me tell you about Narayan Naidu, a fine tabla player. I remember him for one more reason and cant resist the temptation to tell you about it. He was staying at the distance of hardly five minutes from the place where I used to stay. Every Gokul Astami he used to call his musician friends to his house for Jagran. There would be a vocal as well as instrumental program till dawn. Many musicians from film industry used to attend every year.Kalyanjibhai’s assistant Bal Parte also used to come every year. At four o clock or five o clock all would be served with rice and sambar. To come back to the point Rafisahab’s program was at Gandhi Nagar Gruh, Vadodara. In those days record dance by female dancer was a must. A dancer named Sheela Ramani who acted or better to say danced in few films and was famous. Due to some reason she could not come for the program and the ticket holder created a ruckus when they got to know this. Even few chairs were broken. Police were called. Before the situation could go out of hand, the organizers agreed to return the money to those who want to return the tickets. He was so nervous that he asked Rafi sahab to announce the same. The curtain opened and Rafi sahab appeared on the stage and announced that whoever wants thair money back can have them and program will continue without dancer. But nobody returned the tickets. as the program started,everybody forgot about dancer and the program passed on peacefully. Buji lord is good friend of mine.He is a very good drumer and vibraphone player.Buji’s father was a great persecutionist.His late brother Kercy Lord was a accomplished arranger who worked with Naushad,Madanmohan and many other music directors.Rafisahab was so close to Lord’s family that he even attended Buji’s marriage.He told me about West Indies tour which was held in year 1966. Rafisahab was accompanied by Enoc Danial, Narayan Naidu,guitarist Dilip Naik and Abdul Karim.Female singer was Minoo Purshottam.In those days she was famous stage artist.Later Dilip Naik got married to her. People were crazy for Rafisahab.For hours they would wait out side the hotel to just see him.Buji said he was surprised to see public response. All shows were housefull.He said, Once the organizer tried to accommodate musicians in different low budget hotel.When Rafisahab came to know,he told the organizer that his musicians should get the same treatment and if he has any problem,he would not mind shifting to the hotel where his musicians were accommodated. There was some type of gossip with almost all top singers but not Rafisahab.In my long carrier in film industry I never heard any body speaking against him.He was ajatshatru (person without enemy).He was not in a rat race for money. I will tell you another small incident.
Music director Srikant Telang was my close friend.Both of us were staying in same building. He gave music in five to six small budget films.It was his wish to record at least one song by Rafisahab.His budget was so small that it was impossible to call Rafisahab for singing. Amar Haldipurkar was his arrenger.He said”let us aproch Rafisahab.No harm in trying”.When reached there ,his brother in law zahir opened the door.He was the one who looked after financial affair of Rafisahab.Srikant told him about limited budget.He said “look.Rafisahab charges fifteen thousands but since I know you all,I will settle for thirteen thousand”In those days this amount was not small.Srikant’s face fell. Luckily same time Rafisahab came in the hall.Zahir told him about thirteen thousands.Looking at Srikants face he said ok ! How much you can afford?With great difficulty Srikant said”Sir my total budget is seven thousands.That including studio..Musicians charges etc.I can afford only two thousand.Rafisahab immediately said OK.Dont worry about money.Asked Zahir to write down date in diary.This was nature of Rafisahab. This was not new for Rafisahab.Years ago same thing happened with Lakshmikant Pyarelal.Only difference was he returned the money and asked to share them among themselve. You will be surprised to know that in those dayes some top singers were getting very good payment but still they charged hundred rupees extra for petrol and driver. When Lataji was fighting for royalty,she was expecting Rafisahab to tow in her line but rafisahab flatly refused.She stopped singing with him. After the release of film Aradhana,it was lean period for him.Actualy Rafisahab was supposed to sing all song of Aradhana.He sang first two songs but then senior Burmanda fell ill and R.D.took over.He wanted fresh voice and rest is history. During that period he sang many beautiful songs with other singers . Nearly two year after Rafisahab’s death, there was a recording at Bombay lab in Dadar. Music director was Roshan. He was not the famous music director Roshan but a messenger who worked with music director Ravi. He was giving music for the first movie he got. The song was being recorded at Bombay labs – As we were waiting for the rehearsal to start, And then Rafi sahab entered. All were shocked and there was pin drop silence. It was only after he came close that we realised that he must be Rafisahab’s brother and later it was confirmed. Until then we had no idea that Rafi sahab had a brother. Though they were not identical twins, he looked like Rafisahab. Later he sang few songs with some small time music directors but none of them released. Today after so many years Rafisahab is still in the heart of people.He was a great artist and great human being. Day after tomorrow on 31July all over the world his death aniversary will be observed but I am posting my tribut today on occasion of my birthday. I am not a professional writer so there are bound to be some mistakes but I have tried to write it honestly.
Violin maestro Ernest Menezes plays the notes of his musical memories
What’s the similarity between the movies ‘Howrah Bridge’ and ‘Kuch Kuch Hota Hai’? Any guesses? It’s a man called Ernest Menezes. He played the violin for both these movies and in countless more.
Music Plus met with ace violinist Menezes to get into a conversation about music, movies and more. The man immerses himself in the world of music, so much that his melodious violin can be heard right from the gate.
Practising his skills religiously, the 78-year-old began his career with O.P Nayyar’s classic ‘Howrah Bridge’ in 1958. Dedicating 10 years of his life in the pursuit of learning the art of playing the violin, Menezes stepped into the world of music at the age of 18.
“Every day, I would practise for five hours in the morning and then again for five hours in the evening Maybe that’s the reason why I can still play at this age,” said Menezes.
Having mastered the art of playing the string instrument from his uncle, Menezes became popular for his exceptional work. With his uncle’s training and encouragement, Menezes was introduced to the music industry to support his family. Hailing from a modest background, Menezes found his calling in the violin.
The talented violinist has worked with the likes of O.P Nayyar, Shankar Jaikishan, Roshan, Madan Mohan and others. Making a debut with celebrated music composer O.P Nayyar was a blessing for an 18-year-old Menezes. Nayyar, who was known to be extremely strict, was every musician’s delight. In an era when producers would refrain from compensating musicians, Nayyar would take make sure that the musicians’ payments were cleared first. He was the pioneer in fixing rates for the musicians.
“He always said that he was in the industry because of the musicians. No music director has ever said this before. He was strong-headed and always knew what he wanted. Nayyar Saab would finish recording in one or two takes. Once Rafi Saab asked him for one more take and he denied it because he felt the song was ok,” recollects Menezes.
Having extensively worked with Shankar-Jaikishan, Menezes possesses an insider’s view of the legendary Raj Kapoor’s work regime.
Menezes added, “Raj Saab was a visionary. He had learnt music when he was young and that’s why he could explain what he wanted exactly to Shankar-Jaikishan. For background score, he would use pieces of music which were used in his earlier movies just to get the exact music he wanted. Raj Saab had a unique working style. He would explain a scene that needs to be shot in a different way to people and then shoots it in a completely different way. For all his musical sessions, Raj Saab would travel to his farmhouse in Loni along with composing team to work in peace.”
According to Menezes, The Raj Kapoor Films theme song is actually a classical waltz called ‘Waves of the Danube’. “Raj Saab had paid the International Performing Rights Society a handsome amount of ₹35,000 to use the waltz. Such was the integrity of the great man,” expresses Menezes.
It’s not a coincidence that his favourite movie soundtrack is ‘Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayi’. He had worked with Shankar-Jaikishan on every song in the movie including the famous ‘Ajeeb Dastan Hai Yeh’. Lamenting the loss of Jaikishan, Salil Chowdhary, Roshan and R.D Burman for their early deaths, Menezes fondly recalls how Jaikishan composed entire songs out of counter melodies composed by his assistants.
Other than Jaikishan, Menezes has had the opportunity to work both R.D and S.D Burmans. He reminiscences the enriching experience of those times. While RD was ahead of his time, SD was more rooted in folk.
“Both had same assistants, Manoriji, my uncle Joe and Gomes. All were world-class musicians who helped shape the music of that time. Though RD was a fun-loving guy, he was moody. He would change the song completely even if a little part was not right. RD had the best music room at the time. He used to compose, record and listen to the songs in his room. His rhythm team was the best in the industry,” opines Menezes.
In 1986, Menezes along with three others would play at Hotel Oberoi for six months on the 3rd-floor lobby. Zubin Mehta came to Mumbai with his orchestra for a concert. He was staying at the Oberoi on the 21st floor. “Zubin complimented me and told me that he could hear us play even on the 21st floor,” recalled Menezes. Speaking of another incident, Menezes remembered how Odissi dancer Protima Bedi her Italian friend began dancing to the waltz music while we were playing at the hotel.
Menezes has always been at the forefront to help fellow musicians in the industry. It was during his term as the Secretary of the Cine Musicians Association in 1995-97 when musicians got their biggest pay hike. Later, Menezes was also elected as the Secretary of the Film Federation of India. “I fought for artists’ rights and what helped in my fight was that all the producers knew me.”
Looking back at his life and his career, Menezes confesses, “I am not very intelligent and I wish I had done many more things in my career but I couldn’t. I also feel that I could have been much better. Back then, I didn’t know the tricks of the trade and I still don’t know much. But, I still won’t go and beg for work.”
With his never-ending passion for the violin, the man is forever ready to play his favourite tunes. At the end of the conversation, the maestro played ‘Yaad Kiya Hai Dil Ne Kaha Ho Tum’ sung by the legendary Hemant Kumar and composed by his favourite Shankar-Jaikishan.
Shankar composed music for more than 170 movies in his career spanning 39 years , starting from Barsat in 1949 till Gori his last movie. His brand Shankar Jaikishan won 9 Filmfare Awards and how many movies celebrated jubilees is not available. I am sure, the number must be more than 60.
As composer , Shankar was very particular about having rich orchestra, perhaps an habit he picked up from his patron film maker Raj Kapoor, who visualized movies larger than life. To substantiate my point, I wish to cite the example of a few songs from Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai.
Here is a movie, Shankar felt had no scope for music at all, and later scored one of their finest albums for a movie shot mostly in a dacoits den. This movie has 9 songs, and each song is such a rich experience in audio experience. This movie was released in 1960, which means the recording was done before that.
With such primitive recording equipment and facilities, they created such priceless gems, that one fails to visualize what magic they could have created in modern times.
Let’s take a look at the songs :
1 . Mera naam raju gharaana anaam..Movie opens with this song, shot in the vast expanse of Ganga in Haridwar . Just listen to the orchestra, melody and the energy. What a way to open the movie.
2.Begani Shaadi Mein Abdulla Diwana: Here is a fun song which has almost become a popular idiom. Absolutely energetic music and fun filled flow of melody.
3. Hoton pe Sachaai rehti hai: Here is one of the finest songs which portrays the ethos of what India is all about. The prelude for this song begins with a rich play of dafli..and then begins the song on a quite note..picks up with use of Sitar which pull at your heart strings..
4. Kya hua ye mujhe kya pata jaane kyun…A super energetic dance number for Padmini and Chanchal..what can I say about this song. Accordion and rhythm with bongos and percussion of maracas,
5.Ho Maine pyar kiya hoye hoye kya zulm kiya: Here is another very high voltage sensuous number, picturised on Padmini.
6. O Basanti pavan pagal : This pathos number has exceptionally rich orchestra especially, in the end, when Raj Kapoor returns and Padmini dances in front of Goddess Bhavani..My God, simply unbelievable and beyond words .
7. Hai aag hamare seene mein: This is a song with perhaps the maximum number of leading playback singers in one song. Full of energy and a flow which goes up in scale as it progresses. The use of rhythm and mandolin notes is exceptional, to say the least.
8. Pyar Karle nai te phaansi chad jaayega: Here is a classic song which sums up the essence of the story which preaches surrender of arms, and leading a life of honour. Simple and very touching song.
9. Aa Ab Laut chale: This song is the mother of all large screen songs. So much has been written about its orchestra and chorus, that I need not add anything more.
This is music, which elevates a simple story to the skies and makes it a super duper hit.
If this is not larger than life, then what is! This is not the only movie, there are 10s of such great movies with simply out of the world music !!
Jaikishenji was the noblest, kind-hearted person I have ever seen. Very soft spoken, full of compassion & care for others, he would not dream of hurting anyone. .As pure as his heart, he wanted his life peaceful & full of joy. He was very fun loving & liked to enjoy having chums, His favorite restaurants being Gaylord in Churchgate & Bombellis in warden road Like a shining shooting star, he will be there among a group of people with a huge crowd standing outside, drinking the ecstasy of his darshan. .. I have seen him many times, sitting in Bombellis in warden road, surrounded by friends whenever I drove thru that area… Off & on I used to go & join him having breakfast & we would talk about my progress. Evenings he would be in Gaylord … I have not gone there as many times as I have gone to Bombellis because evenings I would go to S J hall … But whenever I have gone there it would be a joy ride having discussions about music & enjoying the makings of a new hit.
He would check up with me about my training sessions with Guruji & in the hall. He would catch me if I had played hookey & bunked the visits to the hall …
‘ I hear you are not going to the hall regularly ?……May I know why ?…. He will ask.
Oh, dear …. what to say! . ‘ No Jai sab, I had some work last week … . ‘Don’t break the training …….Sharda,……This is not something to take lightly. Be regular …..Guruji’s training is not enough ..You need to get into the ins & outs of singing a new song in the recordings! . ‘ Yes, Jai sab… I will be regular & not miss.
. I better not bunk, now ..I will not be able to answer Jai sab again.
. ‘ But you are not coming …Everyone misses you, Jai sab. . ‘Yes. Sharda, you know, I want to be with my friends, in the evenings. I do come sometimes, in the morning. But you are not there . ‘Oh, I go in the evenings Jaisab. But I will come in the morning. Tell me when you will come .. I will come . ‘ It is alright .. Haan .. tomorrow I am coming .. … in the evening. Make sure, you are there … . ‘Yes, Jai sab, definitely . ‘ Tomorrow ‘ was a joyous day … . ‘ Jai sab, I am having this get together at my place … Please come & honor me ..I will be serving idlis! . ‘ Sure .. I won’t miss the idlis for anything. . . The party was total fun, with Shankersab & Jai sab, Raj Sab & other big producers whom Shankerji had invited I was having a magic carpet ride on a ‘ Whole new world ‘ .
He also gave me valuable lessons whenever I made a visit to the restaurants to have a training session with him ..Sitting in the seats , with tea & goodies , talk about this & that , coming to titbits & technics in singing .. Small small tips which are very valuable & very very rare treasures….. the throw of the voice , the controlling of breathing & so on He had guided me on how to bring out words in a song … . It was his Diksha that gave me the idea of how to say Titli & I applied the golden lesson at the start of the song & in all the repeats of the mukhdas. . Each song has a soul spot in which you have to give emphasis…That soul word has to be brought out with a special thrust. In Titli udi the soul spot was in ” Titli “ And the first punch only did the magic. Like if I had sung just plain. Titli udi .. the whole song would have been lifeless But I applied Jai sab’s tip & sang …TT…itt li udi .. & this little punch lifted the song… And later on, I had used his technic in many songs, like in Badkamma & others. In each Enkanna I had applied the push. The punch & push if you put in the right place the song gets the life. .You have to apply as much power in your voice as to how far you want to throw it, like if you want to throw a ball, so much power you apply exactly which would be needed as to how far you want to throw the ball…………. You don’t want to throw it farther than you intended! . .How can I thank you, Jaisab for making my, sorry, your Titli fly high . What great updesh they both had given me….simply priceless. At that time I could not absorb all that, but during the passage of time, I had worked, researched & realized the technics & have formulated a workout program capsule .. which is easy, simple & very effective . During this period we have met very often & been together many times, at functions parties shows & on other occasions the Jaikishen lighting up the scene by his wonderful personality. . Suddenly, a devilish sinister black shadow descended upon them attacking them brutally from all the sides forcing them to find a strategy……fast
They were a team & were together. In a team, everyone is involved as deeply as the other no matter what work is done by who… In a war you don’t bother who shoots the enemy, it is the force .. that force is one & anyone can shoot & the point is the war is won by the force. . . S J was a force & they were together in that force … .
. In a war, you have to place your army in such a manner as to face the enemy surrounding them & make attacks & counter-attacks. . This arrangement of the army is called vyuha, which were used in Mahabharat yudh & other Indian wars. There are many different vyuhas &. the commander in chief selects the vyuha according to the reports brought by the spies as to what sort of attack enemy is planning & what vyuha they are arranging. This vyuha will cover the opposite army in a proper way piercing thro the enemy army from all the sides. . Jaisab worked out a strategy, forming a half circle vyuha to face the attack, making two different routes for both of them to proceed & tackle the enemy. They made an arrangement that Shankerji will manage the side of ‘ like Sharda ‘ producers & Jaisab will manage ‘ hate Sharda ‘ producers ….. This will prevent the ‘ hate Sharda ‘ producers from going away …….. Jai sab did not want to antagonize the opposition & invite more wreaths. . If no one bothered about S J making me sing if there were no angry retaliation from the opposition, why would they have to work separately? Wouldnt they have been continuing like the way they were doing, before? . Now as per the new arrangement, they both started to work separately, which created some misconceptions about their work. Jaikishenji’s heart was very komal, kind & soft. His love for Shankerji was pure & steadfast. He was not able to come to terms with this new development. His pain & hurt of standing apart from Shankerji was unbearable to him & it made him turn to drink doomsville …
. He was not at all overdrinking during Shree 420. Jis desh days & others. Why would he suddenly fall prey to this habit? .
Who wanted to put this noble soul in such a dilemma …who wanted him to separate from Shankerji. who wanted to break this Godly jodi?…………………….
. Whichever female force majboored him to stand apart from Shankerji, that force did not win, after all. He never let them win. The force had to accept defeat. . He could have avoided this pain by bowing & giving in to the demand, which wanted him to break up with Shankerji & give music in his own name,…just Jaikishen . But he would never think of it …… He suffered & suffered inwardly but would not bend down. . HE SHOWED THE WHOLE WORLD THAT HE WOULD RATHER DIE THAN BREAK UP WITH SHANKERJI. HE DROWNED HIMSELF IN A DISASTROUS PIT REFUSING TO BOW DOWN TO THE PRESSURES BROUGHT UPON HIM.
And he went as the same Jaikishen he was in 1947 ..the darling of Shankerji The joy of Shanker Jaikishen … Not just Jaikishen.
. There are rules in war also .. You must not attack anyone in the not approved manner. But here this war was not a Dharam war .. This was an Adharam war, most devilish war. All sorts of dirty tactics were applied in this war ……. Shankerji & Jaikishenji both high principled, golden-hearted persons, will not stoop so low as to fight an indecent war ..Facing all sorts of mean, dirty cunning strategies they both had a testing time. . ……………………………… . If only music directors were not given the treatment of a criminal if they made other singers sing in their movies… Shankerji would not have been made to face so many atrocities. Jaikishenji would not have been made to work separately in a suicidal plan. They would not have been made to tear their paths in order to face the tornado …………………………………
. Was it so disastrous if some music director takes songs with some new singers that people should attack him with so much force & vengeance? Using all sorts of dirty lowly tactics? And people saying that Shankerji had to suffer because he made Sharda sing? As if he had committed an unspeakable crime by making Sharda sing! . If only people were not so mean & cruel but be human enough as to let others also live …have a small place in the film industry & sing a few songs …what they would have lost? Ultimately we all need nothing but 6 feet of land in the end! Instead of abetting the loving team to work separately & driving Jaikishenji into an untimely end……….. . Shankerji did not have an iota of an idea that how Jaikishenji is letting himself being sucked into this drink pit so precipitously. Being a teetotaller himself, his evenings were not spent in the company of double-faced chameleons & cunning scoundrels He was spending his time going to the hall religiously, drowning in his work, composing new new tunes & discovering new phrases in music. . Only, if he had some knowledge about what was going on in Jai sab’s territory, he would have definitely discouraged Jai sab from falling in the pit & saved him…. .. won’t you prefer foes than having friends like this who push you to your doom, when you are passing thru a painful period?…….. Shankerji realized the severeness of the damage when it has taken too deep a root …..his own heartbreaking in pieces, beyond repair …..bringing tears in his never got wet eyes …
Jaikishenji became the Abhimanyu in the vyuha he himself created. In the prime of his life, in the peak of his carrier, leaving the whole of India in uncontrollable unforgettable grief pulling himself away from lacs & lacs of loving hands, he goes ……………………….
All the blows which Shanker sab was made to take so far did not shake him one bit … But this blow hit him hard. His iron heart cracked ……..And tears fell from his eyes for the first time ………. . Don’t humans have human hearts in their chests? …. Cheers …. become tears ……………………………………………………………………….
I am a die-hard fan of Shankar-Jaikishan Music and their huge contribution to Bollywood Film Industry. NASHAUD-SAHEB enjoyed Shankar-Jaikishan’s music so much for that he said “SHANKAR-JAIKISHEN WERE NOT MUSICIAN BUT THEY WERE SIMPLY JUST MAGNIFICIENCE MAGICIAN”. How true it is when we listened to their music and songs. Raj Kapoor had an unerring eye for talent across all fields of cinema. He had spotted Shankar and Jaikishan who were musicians with Prithvi Theatres and later they were assistants to Ram Ganguly. As assistants to Ram Ganguly, they had given a huge musical contribution to the first RK film production AAG. After that SJ as music director team came on the scene in 1948 for the RK banner film BARSAAT. BARSAAT created a huge musical miracle on the Hindi film screen. As a matter fact, Raj Kapoor was very knowledgeable about various musical instruments and music. We had witnessed this talent in Raj Kapoor’s films were we enjoyed seeing him playing different musical instruments. Barsaat – a phenomenon A classic film by Raj Kapoor’s “BARSAAT” started that trend of filmy revolution. In this revolution the major contribution was made by Shanker – Jaikishan in Hindi film industry. Their fresh tunes and orchestration lead the paradigm shift from the then prevailing monotonous thekas and droning cadences. The music of “BARSAAT” opened up yet another channel for making money – the ‘records’ broke the ‘records’ of earning money independent of the film. Legend has it that the composer of “ANDAZ” (released in the same year) – Naushad went to its producer – Mehboob Khan for celebrating the huge success of his film “ANDAZ” songs. It was raining then and Mehboob Khan, looking out of the window said to Naushad, ‘Aapke Gaanon ko to ‘Barsaat’ ne dho dala’! This was the comment made by Mehboob Khan after a huge success of BARSAAT. So this was the power of SJ music in India right after our independence in 1947. Barsaat made NIMMI a Super Heroin It was Raj Kapoor, who named Nimmi when he introduced her in Barsaat. How she got selected for Barsaat is an interesting story. Nimmi came from Lahore with her aunt and was staying with Sardar Akhtar and Mehboob Khan. Mehboob Khan’s Andaaz was almost complete and Raj Kapoor who was acting in the film, had launched Barsaat. Raj Kapoor was in search of a new face for the role. Being a fastidious man, he had already rejected many girls. Nimmi had gone with Sardar Akhtar on the sets of Andaaz and was sitting besides Nargis’ mother Jaddanbai. Raj Kapoor came up to Jaddanbai, wished her and then looked at Nimmi. Nimmi felt so shy that she could barely acknowledge him. Raj Kapoor returned to the floor and asked Mehboobsaab about Nimmi. Raj Kapoor told Mehboobsaab, ‘I want this girl for my film.’ Nimmi didn’t know what to do. She wanted to accept the offer but was worried about her grandmother’s reaction. So Sardar Akhtar called her grandmother. Surprisingly her grandmother agreed. So Nimmi was called for a screen test. She was given some dialogues, which she mouthed in an absolute trance. A round of applause brought her out of her stupor. The next thing Nimmi knew was that she had been chosen for Barsaat. Nimmi was deliriously happy and was cast opposite Premnath. Infact, Nimmi had the most extra ordinary relationship with Raj Kapoor. During the filming of Barsaat, a rakhi scene was being shot and Raj called out to Nimmi. ‘Nimmi do you know the meaning of rakhi? ` She nodded. ‘Okay, tie it on my wrist. From then on Nimmi became his rakhi sister all his life. As a matter fact, Nimmi was always given due respect by the entire Kapoor household. Surprisingly Jaikishan was only the 16 years old when he started this musical journey at the time of giving music for the first time as a music director with Shankar, in the Hindi film “Barsaat”. Shankar & Jaikishan explored & learned the right way to please the cinema mass right after this huge success. Before them, until that time, we had many famous, well known and good music directors of Hindi cinema, like Anil Biswas,Husnlal-Bhagatram, Khemchand Prakash, Roshan, Naushad, Ghulam Muhammad and so on. The old Hindi film music was good but it was not that appealing to mass audience. Very soon SJ realized that the film industry needed a boost to change the way music was played in those days. SJ immediately started executing their ideas, where they were the first one to introduce orchestra and duets songs in the Hindi films. That change made them instant hit. That journey started with BARSAAT where they followed the original Indian classical music. Shankar and Jaikishan had the vast knowledge about the use of different musical instruments. We have over the time, experienced that being played in their songs. It was also noticeable that every Hindi movie produced with SJ-MUSIC, provided a classical dance item with classical music. Between them, they had tremendous understanding about their musical work distribution that Shankar would do “the theme-song at RK” while Jaikishan would handle the background score. Shankar’s passion was the tabla and the classical dance compositions. He learnt the tabla fundamentals from Baba Nasir Khansahib. As we know, SHANKARJI was very knowledgeable on classical dances. Not only that but Shankar and Jaikishan loved the RAAGA Bhairavi. A touch of Bhairavi we experienced with the songs from Shree 420, “Mera joota hai Japani” and Ramaivya vastavaiyya”. Jaikishan loved Bhairavi so much that made him to name “Bhairavi” to his daughter. They made classical music and Ragas a backbone of their music. Soon they also proved to be outstanding in giving background music in their films. As we know, Jaikishan, in those days, was considered the expert in providing the background music for the films. Until present time, nobody has beaten Jaikishanji in providing that most soothing BACKGROUND MUSIC in the Hindi films. Shankar Jaikishan contributed a lot to the world of music in India right from the day they began working as music directors. Music composed by them was extensive. It was based on classical Indian music (‘Dil ek mandir hai’, ‘O basanti pawan pagal’) and even on western music (‘Sukoo sukoo’, ‘Raat ke hamsafar’). Their music was characterized by a special style. For the record, Shankar Jaikishan produced an album “ Raga Jazz Style” where they experimented: Raga Todi Raga Bhairav Raga Malkauns Raga Kalavati Raga Tilak Kamod Raga Mian Ki Malhar Raga Bairagi Raga Jaijaiwanti Raga Mishra Pilu Raga Shivranjani What else you expect from a music director! I rate SHANKAR-JAIKISHAN as the number-1 music director in the Hindi Film world. This composer duo was the most versatile through the 50s and 60s. From the Barasat hit “Hawa Main Udadta Jaye”, Aawara hit ’Ghar Aaya Mera Pardesi’ to classical songs in Basant Bahar and Seema, and I still bet no one can give the classical music like Aamrapli. In fact Shankar-Jaikishan used Indian Classical Ragas to compose most of their songs to mixed with the westernized tunes as experimented in “An Evening In Paris, Zuk Gaya Aasman, ’Aaj Kal Tere Mere Pyar Ki Charche Har Zabaan Par’ (Bramhachari)” songs. SJ could create a melody to suit any mood or emotion. They were masters in conducting orchestra. Accordion, Sitar, Mandolin, Sarod, Vina, Guitar, piano etc. were the special instruments used frequently in their music. SJ in their life span won as many as 9-Filmfare Awards out of a total of 150 Hindi movies (compared 6-Filmfare Awards out of 600 movies by LP). That is the highest number of awards ever won by any Bollywood music directors till present day. SJ won these Filmfare Awards for: Chori Chori (1956), Anari (1959), Dil Apana Aur Preet Parayi (1960), Professor (1962), Suraj(1966), Bramhachari (1968), Pehchan(1970), Mera Naam Joker (1971), and Beiman (1972). SJ used to give around 4 to 5, some time all, hit songs in each of their films. Particularly, SJ under RK-banner gave the most memorable and un-forgetful musical hits for the films like Barasat, Aah, Aawara, Boot Polish, Shree 420, Jis Desh Main Ganga Behati Hai, Sangam, Mera Naam Joker. The other hit songs of SJ music includes films like Halaku, Daag, Badshah, ZINDAGI, Aarzoo, Dil Ek Mandir, Hamrahi, Aai Milan Ki Bela, Suraj, Teesari Kasam, Love In Tokyo and many more. Noted Music Director Anu Malik (and Hasrat Jaipuri’s Nephew) says that Raj Kapoor had dug a well full of everlasting music and Shankar Jaikishan drew water out of it. Though SJ never approved their separation, the fact is that the two did started working separately in the mid-60s. The reason is attributed to the fact that Shankar introduced a new singer Sharda (famous for her song Titli Udi… in the movie SURAJ) much against the disagreement of Jaikishan. Further Shankar’s fondness for Sharda & Jaikishan’s inclination towards Lata Mangeshkar created differences between the two and in the mid-60s the split. How can we forget these famous Duo of composers who gave songs all the way from Jaan Pehchan ho (a melody still very famous in the west), Badan Pe Sitare (a tune that has been used in many songs in current Bollywood), Baharon Phool Barsao (a very nostalgic tune that is the only happy song ever to be created in the raga shivrangini), all the way to classical movies such as BASANT BAHAR. RASIK BALMA – IMPACT Rasik Balma song is from the old Hindi film Chori Chori (1956), which was based on Raga Shudh Kalyan. There is another song Chand Phir Nikla (Film: Paying Guest of 1957), which was composed by Maestro S.D.Burman. In fact, both of these two songs “ Rasik-Balama and Chand Nikala” sound so similar. These two songs were composed by two of the greatest Hindi film music directors of all time Shankar-Jaikishan and S.D. Burman respectively around the year 1956. It is surprising to note that both these music directors never composed any Hindi song based on Raga Hamsadhwani, a melodious South Indian classical raga. Both songs were composed independently by the above two music directors. Since both songs were composed on Raga Shudh Kalyan, both have the same bandishi or pakkad. And this is the reason why both songs sound so similar. In the background, a light rhythm of ghungaoos was played so as to enhance the beauty of both songs. There was no question of one being a copy of the other. In those golden years of 1950s, one could not even think of plagiarism, which unfortunately is rampant in some of the present day Hindi film-music. Both songs were brilliantly sung by the great Lata Mangeshkar. The immortal Lata Mangeshkar has stated that these two songs are two of the best songs of her career among her other favorite songs such as Aaja re pardesi (Film: Madhumati), Ayega aanewala (Film: Mahal) and Ye zindagi usiki hai (Film: Anarkali). Actually, when this song Rasik Balma was being picturized on actress Nargis, Nargis declared that she would not require any Glycerin on her eyes to emote for this song. After hearing the song, Nargis knew that there was no need to use Glycerin during the picturization of the song, since the great Lata Mangeshkar had already used her deep emotions while singing the song, and that was enough to create natural tears. Glycerin is normally used in the film industry to create tears artificially in the eyes of the actor or actress for sad scenes. From reliable sources, it is known that the above song Rasik Balma was composed by Jaikishan. Generally, the opening (sthaayi) of the song is set within a medium octave, but this song opens on a very high note. During recording, Lata Ji had pointed this out to Jaikishan Ji saying that people are going to blame her for singing this song at such a high pitch and people might say that they cannot even hum it! But the brilliant Jaikishan told Lata Mangeshkar that the beauty of this song lied entirely on singing it at a high pitch, and finally the song was sung at a high pitch and the rest is history. In 1956, from India, Lataji called Mehboob Khan, the famous Producer and Director of Oscar nominated Film: MOTHER INDIA who was undergoing a medical treatment in a hospital in Los Angeles in USA. At that time, Mehboob Khan told Lataji that he was very impatient to hear the melodious soulful song RASIK BALMA from Lataji herself over the phone, since the record of this song was not available in USA at that time. “Oh, Rasik Balma from Chori Chori…?” asked Lataji and she sang the entire song over the phone for Mehboob Khan. She sang this song over the telephone every single day while Mehboob Khan was recuperating in the Los Angeles hospital. Later, Mehboob Khan admitted how much this song had helped him recover faster from his illness. This proves the power of the song “Rasik Balma”, which could heal an ill person. There were many other great composers such as RD & SD Burman, O.P Nayyar, Laxmikant-Pyarelal, Naushad, Roshan, Khayyam etc. When we analyzed these music directors’ musical contribution on the scale of versatility, they perhaps would be nowhere close to Shankar Jaikishan. If RD Burman gave music to movies like Yadon Ki Baraat, Kati Patang and Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin, there isn’t a single movie in which he gave classical numbers. Same goes for SD Burman who made some very good semi-classical and classical numbers but had a better success in making more western numbers such as “Rangeela-re” after RD Burman started to assist him. Naushad and Khayyam definitely had very good classical numbers but not a lot of western mixed numbers. As far as I remember most Semi Classical Songs Of Shankar Jaikishan are among the Best in the Hindi film industry. If you were knowledgeable in the Indian Classical music, you would be able to tell the difference between music that is made today compared to the music that was made in 50s and 60s. 50s and 60s definitely had better music that 70s and later because Shankar Jaikishan used massive orchestra’s that gave you songs that were truly special such as Likhe Jo Khat Tujhe, Dil Ke Jharokhe Mein, Kaun Hai Jo Sapno Mein Aaya (a song that had a tune from Elvis Presley’ song but sounded much better with the type of composition SJ converted it into). The song Awara Hoon was very famous in countries like Russia, England and France because European type of music. If anyone ever heard Scottish music you would be surprised to hear how much it resembles the song Dil Ki Nazar Se from the movie Anari. As far as I know AR Rehman is below every music director from the old Bollywood. The problem is that no MUSIC composer today including Rehman knows how to make a raga-based mixed composition. We are pretty much forgetting our own heritage and going after music played in the west. SJ proved that what a fusion between classical and western can do in songs like Baharon Phool Barsao (Raga Shivrangini) and Yaad Na Jaye Beete Dino Ki (Raga Kirwani). A person who is trained in western music would definitely be able to identify the jazz, and rock and roll style in Shankar Jaikishan compositions. A classical musician or singer will be able to identify the Raga on which any of SJ compositions would be based but not from Rehman’s music because there is no Raga in his music just Rhythms and so called “western melody” that he hasn’t even mastered properly. CULTURAL IMPACT I have done detailed research on how the Hindi-Film Music influenced the World. Indian cinema, with its characteristic film music, has not only spread all over Indian society, but also been on the forefront of the spread of India’s culture around the world. In Britain, Hindi film songs are heard in restaurants, on radio, and TV-channels, dedicated to Asian music. In Greece the genre of indoprepi sprang from Hindi film music while in Indonesia dangdut singers like Ellya Khadam, Rhoma Irama and Mansyur S., have reworked Hindi songs for Indonesian audiences. In France, the band Les Rita Mitsouko used Bollywood influences in their music video for “Le petit train” and French singer Pascal of Bollywood popularized filmy music by covering songs such as “Zindagi Ek Safar Hai Suhana“. In Nigeria Bandiri music—a combination of Sufi lyrics and Bollywood-style music—has become popular among Hausa youth. Hindi film music has also been combined with local styles in the Caribbeanto form “chutney music“. Recently I was touring in Marrakesh, a big city in MOROCCO, where I found local people were talking to me in Hindi and inquiring about SHAHRUKH KHAN. They were also asking me about the film “KABHI KHUSHI KABHI GAM”. Then I noticed that there is a big Cinema Theater showing only HINDI FILMS in a regular show. I was just stunned to learn that Moroccans also enjoy the Hindi Films & Music just like Indians. Now I can say with confidence that Hindi films have conquered the great part of the world. Bollywood leads the world in viewer numbers as well as film-production volumes. Soviet Russia was a key part of that story. Russians have been enjoying popular Indian melodrama and musicals since the first festival of Indian films in Moscow in 1954. This delegation was conducted by Raj Kapoor. This was the occasion for Russians and the world to listen to Shankar-Jaikishan’s music for the first time out side of India. In fact, Russian box office statistics suggest that Indian movies were more popular than any other foreign films shown in the Soviet Union. In the period between 1954 and 1989, for example, while 41-American and 38-French movies attained “blockbuster” status (“blockbuster” defined as selling more than 20-million tickets) in the Soviet Union, 50-Indian movies did the same. Fascination with Hindi Songs The number of songs that were adapted by the foreign countries from Hindi movies is considerable. From the 111 movies known to have come, as well as from others whose importation is uncertain, 105 Greek renditions were identified. Many came from the best-known Hindi movies that are from Awaara, Shree 420, Mother India, Ghar Sansaar, Laajwanti, and Aan. Many Hindi songs engendered duplicates, triplicates, and quadruplicates. For example, “Pyar Hua Ikrar Hua” (Shree 420) and “Gao Tarane Man Ke” (Aan) have four renditions, “Unchhi, Unchhi Dunia Ki Diware…” (Naagin) and “Aa Jao TaRapte Hai Arman” (Awaara) has three. At least 10 others have duplicates. Of all songs, 57 (55%) have a great similarity with pre-existing songs; 25 (24%) deviate significantly from the originals, 16 (16%) are partial renditions, where other melodies are mixed with Hindi, and 5 (5%) use only some musical bars. In overseas countries most Hindi songs copies were temporary hits or remained obscure. However, 11 were still known among the general public in 1998, about 35 years later. The best remembered in the 1990s were: “Aa Jao TaRapte Hai Arman” from Awaara, one of three renditions of this song by Stellios Kazantzidis; “kardia mou kaimeni” (my poor heart –“Dunia Me Ham Aaye” from Mother India), “auti i nyxta menei” (this night remains — Ulfat Ka Saaz Chhedo from the 1953 MehboobKhan’s Aurat), “oso axizeis esy” (as much as you are worth — “Dunia Walon Se Duur” from Ujaala”). In foreign countries mainly in Middle East and Greece, Mother India, Awaara, and other movies established Nargis as the great priestess of the family dramas, with Madhubala a close second. The ability of these heroines to express pain made the beautiful and haunting songs that they sang instant hits. It was only natural that the emotions of the poor Greeks would be expressed through those very same melodies. Thus, starting in 1959, Greek-language renditions of many songs appeared. As the above article implies, the transformed songs had a big problem: Plagiarism. With few exceptions, the songs appeared as creations of at least 26 Greek musicians. The copying was systematic. Some Greek-musicians copied some Hindi songs on reel tape recorders directly from movie theaters, and in other cases, music companies ordered records from India and distributed them to willing people for copying. The names of Naushad Ali, Shankar-Jaikishan, and Chitalkar Ramachandra were never heard in Greece. When India conquered Greece Here’s a superbly researched article from World Bank economist Helen Abadzi on Greek songs that were inspired from Hindi film songs. Ms. Abadzi writes: The most Hindi movies were considered working-class fare. They had much less appeal for the middle-class, which looked westward for entertainment, wanted more humor, and was not plagued by the social dilemmas of the poor and the limited solutions available to the heroines. Nevertheless, many saw the Hindi masterpiece movies. In February 1960, Mother India premiered without much advertisement in Kotopouli, a downtown theater in Greece, on a snowy day. The first few curious spectators were so moved by watching this movie in the theater that they stopped strangers on the way out and told them not to miss that “social gospel”. Four hours later, a waiting moviegoers line two city blocks long had formed, and the movie played in some Greek town or other at least for the next 10 years. I can’t pay enough tribute to Shankar-Jaikishan, as their creation can never be reviewed within any human domain – except that it can only be felt; and we, as human being, can always take advantage to listen to their divine tunes. I always refer to them as two angels who visited this world, and left their divine impression with mankind forever. Shankar Jaikishan remains an enigma for all basically because two different people with completely different backgrounds, different natures, different attitudes, and different temperament but together they created the most harmonious, highly original and unparalleled creative music in the annals of Bollywood Film history. This is the most astounding and intriguing aspect of their creation. Hydrogen and oxygen are two different elements. They have their own properties and their own original existence. But when they come together they have created something entirely different from both their original character…Water! Water is something so unique that nothing equals it in the entire creations of any chemical element. Water is life giving, without water there would be no life. Similarly, Shankar Jaikishan were the two different entities; together they created water like magic. Without each other, they are like hydrogen and oxygen, however much they wanted to, they individually could never create the magic called water. They needed each other to do it. This is the story of Shankar Jaikishan. But, as human beings what they are, they would like to know what created this magic? Who is more creative? Who is more talented? Whose contribution is more in creating the magic? That is why we have to touch upon the most painful and least understood, least known aspect of their creations, who created what? At the end, I just would like to add my comment on the current status of Bollywood: However, with the death of stalwart composers like S.D. Burman, C. Ramchandra, Naushad, Madan Mohan, Salil Chaudhary, O.P. Nayyar, Roshan, Ghulam Mohammad, Jaidev and Shankar-Jaikishan, the quality of the Hindi music declined. The standard of lyrics nosedived with the death of Sahir, Shakeel, Rajender Krishan, Shailendera, Hasrat Jaipuri, Raja Mehndi Ali Khan etc. The untimely death of Rafi, Mukesh, Manna Dey, Mahendra Kapoor, Kishore and Talat created a huge void, which the successor singers could not fill up. Indian film music is progressing ahead but without any meaningful tunes or lyrics or music. What we experience now a days, is loud instrumental noise, western rhythm, and meaningless wordings in film songs. Rarely we hear some good music with lyrics.
The South Indian producers and directors have had a long love affair with Shankar Jaikishan music and so did the southern music lovers who enjoyed Hindi music as much as, or even more than, their counterparts from other parts of the country. Many a times, the producers re-produced super hits of the Telugu versions in Hindi with a great success.
AVM Productions made the ever popular Chori Chori (1956) that won SJ their first Filmfare Award for Best Music Director. Another was, Main Sunder Hoon (1971). Producer/director and Dada Saheb Phalke Award winner, L. V. Prasad worked with SJ in Chhoti Bahen (1959) under his home banner Prasad Productions. With the super success of Chhoti Bahen, Prasad also made Sasural (1961), Humrahi (1963) and Beti Bete (1964), which all had silver jubilee runs. Sasural won SJ another Filmfare Award. Then came, College Girl (1960) by noted director, T. Prakasa Rao who had a very long association with SJ. He also made Humrahi (Prasad Productions), Suraj (1966), Duniya (1968) and Rivaaj (1972). SJ won a Filmfare Award for their work in Suraj. The very famous producer/director C. Sridhar made Dil Ek Mandir (1963) with SJ music and followed it up with Dharti (1970) and Duniya Kya Jane (1971). B. Ananthaswami’s Screen Gems made Sapnon Ka Saudagar (1968) that launched Hema Malini. B. R. Panthulu made Dil Tera Diwana (1972) for Padmini Pictures. Gemini Pictures made Zindagi (1961) and followed it with Shatranj (1969) in partnership with N. N. Sippy.
SJ worked in Vikram Productions movie Bhai Bahen (1969). K. Shankar made Sachhai (1969) for MCR Pictures’ Pardey Ke Peechhey (1971) and Bandagi (1972) and Chhote Sarkar (1974). Navashakti Productions has SJ compose music for their Telugu movie, Jeevitha Chakram (1971) with the legendary actor turned Chief Minister, N. T. Rama Rao which had a stupendous run. Aankh Micholi 91972) was made by EVR Pictures in Chennai. Last but not the least is Chandrashekhar who made Street Singer (1966) with his dear friend, Shankar composing music under the pseudonym, Suraj.
It should be noted that all the above movie makers had great confidence in the ability and talent of SJ and felt that every rupee paid to them in remuneration would be paid back a hundred fold in returns. Almost all of the above movies enjoyed great success with SJ.
L. V. Prasad was impressed by SJ’s “jiya bekrar hai chhayi bahar hai..” from SJ’s first movie Barsaat (1949). He had the song as an inspiration for a number in his film Samsaram (1950) released the following year. ENJOY!
Seen in the picture below taken at the premier of Suraj are (from left to right): Jaikishan, Krishnamurthy (Producer, Venus Pictures), Vyjayanthimala and Shankar. (Back row): Director T. Prakash Rao, Rajendra Kumar and others.
That sad Wednesday afternoon, a little after he died, the radio sang :
“Aye mere dil kahin aur chal gham ki duniya se dil bhar gaya dhoondle ab koi ghar naya“.
It was Shailendra’s own lyric from `Daag’. He, too, had just told his weary heart : “I am full of the world’s sorrows. Let me seek a new home!”.
At the nursing home where he lay, we, his close friends, tried vainly to hold back our tears. Twenty years is a long time to know anyone, particularly in the film industry where “friendships” are made and broken easily, too easily.
Twenty years ago, we – a small group of people – had started from nothing. We had dreams, and nothing else, to sustain us. We had stood together, to the surprise and possibly dismay of many, and together we had worked out a common destiny. And today, without warning, death has laid an icy hand on one of us.
“Dhoond le ab koi ghar naya.”. He had done it.
For “Teesri Kasam” his own production, he had written :
“Sajan re jhoot mat bolo, khuda ke paas jana hai, na haathi hai na ghoda hai, vahaan paidal his jaana hai.”
True enough. We all have to go on foot. There will be no elephants to carry us, no horses, no Impalas. Poets have to go there when the call comes and ordinary men too.
But do the poets of the world, true creative artistes, really die?
Born and brought up a man of the people, Shailendra remained that all his life. His lyrics, like he himself, were simple, and had depth. And what a variety! He could dash off a frothy love lyric, he could compose a deeply philosophical poem. He wrote of sadness, gaiety, resignation, despair, hope.
“Ye poorab hai, poorab wale, har jaan ki keemat jaante hain“, he said, in the theme song of `Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai’. That was the pariot. “Awara hoon“, he sang, in a manner at once, light-hearted and serious. The song became world famous. And it was the same patriot who laughingly wrote “Mera joota hai Japani” in `Shri 420′.
When Shailendra joined our fold – at the time of Raj Kapoor was making “Barsaat” – it was with two lyrics he had ready – “Barsaat mein humse mile tum” and “Patli kamar hai“. He said goodbye to the R.K. Banner, again with two lyrics, for “Mera Naam Joker”. In between, from his work done not only for us – Shanker and myself – but for other composers, I can name scores of lovely lyrics, songs which have been on everyone’s lips.
By the way, Shailendra has written lyrics for all films for which my partner Shanker and I have composed the music with the exception of `College Girl’ and `Aarzoo’. In the latter film, he didn’t work with us because he was ill.
Shanker and I met Shailendra for the first time twenty years ago. Raj Kapoor introduced us at his office which was then at Famous Studios, Mahalaxmi. Shailendra had a job in the railway workshop at Parel. He wrote poetry in his spare time. One of his poems – “Jalta hai Punjab” – moved Raj Kapoor so much he wanted to put it in `Aag’. But Shailendra was then not keen on contributing lyrics to films. He later changed his mind and joined us for `Barsaat’.
The last time I ever saw him in good health was at Rajkamal studios about a month ago where I was doing some back-ground music recording. And you know what he was saying? Despite all the difficulties he had experienced in producing `Teesri Kasam’ he wanted to launch another film!
In the early days, Shailendra was living in a one room tenement at Parel. After `Barsaat’, my partner had been offered our first contract outside R.K. ( the film was Mr. Dalsukh Pancholi’s `Nagina’) and wanting to persuade Shailendra to write the lyrics, I visited him for the first time at his home. Like us, he was quite needy then, but his work caught on quickly and he became much sought after. His address had a few changes – from somewhere, Parel, to `Rim Jhim’, his own home at Khar, but all along the man himself never changed.
He was intelligent, very gentle, full of knowledge and very sensitive. His love of poetry and literature was paramount. Tagore was an early favourite as also Khalil Gibran. He was always nice company, whether you were discussing poetry or politics. He was very emotional and wept when something moved him. When he was composing a lyric, he would walk restlessly about the room. He loved writing on the beach. From the early days, he smoked incessantly – I wish he had been more careful.
He was young – only 43. Why did he have to go that early and with so much mental suffering?
In the music room of Shanker-Jaikishan at our homes where he was so welcome, there will be a void. There will be a bigger void in our hearts.
“Dhoond le ab koi ghar naya…”.
Goodbye, my friend.
`FILMFARE’ – JANUARY 20, 1967
This is courtesy : Jay Subramanyam who composed it on Jan 12, 2009 at 1:54 PM