‘दो भटकते राही – ‘शंकर – जयकिशन’, आ मिले मंज़िल पर – चंद्रवदन भट ऑफीस, मायानगरी बंबई, दो दिलों की कश्ती आ लगी साहिल पर – ‘पृथ्वी थिएटर्स’, मुस्कुराते जागे एक संग दो मुक़द्दर’ – राज साहब की फ़िल्म ‘बरसात’ में स्वतंत्र संगीत निर्देशन का मौका …
‘२१ अप्रेल १९४९’ को बंबई के सिनेमा घरों की ओर जानेवाली सडकोंपर सिनेमा प्रेमियों की भीड उमडी थी, इसी दिन राज साहब की फिल्म ‘बरसात’ प्रदर्शित हुई थी, यह लोग बेताब थे, इस फ़िल्म के गीत पर्देपर देखने के लिए … एक युवा जोडीकी संगीत सफ़र की यह शुरुआत थी … फ़िल्म के शुरू होते ही श्रेय नामावली में (Titles) Music – Shankar – Jaikishan, Lyricist – Hasrat Jaipuri – Shailendra यह चार नाम पहली बार परदेपर दिखाई दिए, जो फ़िल्म का प्रमुख आकर्षण थे…’शंकर – जयकिशन’ इस नवोदित और युवा संगीतकार द्वयी का संगीत, और शैलेंद्र – हसरत इन नौजवां युवकों द्वारा लिखे गीत, उस दिन बहुचर्चित विषय बना था … इन चार युवकों नें हिंदी सिनेमा संगीत की दुनिया मे पहला कदम रखा था … ‘एस-जे’ ने इसी फिल्म से स्वतंत्र संगीत निर्देशन का ‘आगाज’ किया था … उस दिन शाम के ढलते ढलते ‘अंजाम’ यह था क़ि, युवा ‘एस-जे’ और उनकी धुनों से सजे गीत हर किसी के दिलमें जा बसे थे, साथ में ‘शैलेंद्र – हसरत जयपुरी’ जैसे युवा गीतलेखक, जो इन गीतों के रचनाकार थे … बंबई के साथ और बाद में जहां जहां बरसात प्रदर्शित हुई वहां उसे सफलता ही मिली…भारतवर्ष के तमाम संगीत शौकीन जो बदलाव चाहते थे, वोह ‘एस-जे’ लेकर आये थे हिंदी सिने संगीत में … नयी रचनाओं के साथ, नयी कर्णमधुर धुनों से सजे गीत लेकर …चार होनहार युवक, शंकर – हैदराबाद, जय – वंसदा (गुजरात), शैलेंद्र – मथुरा तो हसरत जयपुरी – ‘गुलाबी शहर’ जयपूर से बंबई आए थे … क़िस्मत आजमाने, आँखों में सपने सजाये, इस भूलभुलैय्या वाली मायानगरी में … और अपने पहले ही प्रयास में वें चारों सफल हुए थे. ‘बरसात में हमसे मिले तुम सजन तुमसे मिले हम बरसात में’, ‘जिया बेकरार हैं’, ‘हवा में उडता जाये’, ‘मैं जिंदगी में हरदम रोता’, ‘मुझे किसी से प्यार हो गया’, ‘अब मेरा कौन सहारा’, ‘छोड़ गए बालम’, ‘पतली कमर’, ‘मेरी आँखों मे बस गया कोई रे, ‘बिछड़े हुए परदेसी’….. सब गीत बेहद लोकप्रिय हुए … अपनें धुवांधार संगीत से ‘एस-जे’ की जोडी ने संगीत के मैदान पर पहली बाज़ी जीत ली थी, हर किसीं का मन मोह लिया था … ‘बरसात’ की अपार सफलता से तीन बातें एक साथ हो गयी थी, एक तो राज साहब को इस जोड़ी की क़ाबिलीयत पर यक़ीन हो गया था, वोह अपनी शुरुआती फिल्मों की असफ़लता के ‘चक्रव्यूह’ से बाहर निकल गए थे, उनकी करिअर को दिशा मिल गयी थी, दूसरी बात उन्होंने RK स्टुडियो खरीद लिया था, …तीसरी और सबसे महत्वपूर्ण बात यह थी, ‘एस-जे’ के क़दम उस ‘संगीत सम्राट’ के सिंहासन की ओर बढ़ गए थे, जो उन्हें दूर से इशारा कर रहा था … और दूरी ज्यादह नहीं थी. १९५१ में आवारा प्रदर्शित हुई और भारत की सीमा लाँघकर ‘एस-जे’ ने दूसरा क़दम सीधा विदेश में रक्खा … रूस, चीन, बल्गेरिया, टर्की के युवक रास्तों पर ‘आवारा हूँ’ यह गीत गाकर झूमने लगे,नाचने लगे थे … सभी गीत झक्कास थे, एस-जे अपनी दूसरी ही फ़िल्मसे ‘जगन्मान्य’ हो गए थे … तरोताज़ा, मदमस्त धुनें बनाकर वें विश्व में अपनी पहचान बना चुके थे … फिर संगीत प्रेमियों ने तुरंत उन्हें ‘संगीत सम्राट’ के सिंहासन पर बिठा कर उनकी ताज़पोशी कर दी थी.
‘आवारा हूँ’, ‘तेरे बिना आग ये चाँदनी’ ‘घर आया मेरा परदेसी’, ‘दम भर उधर मुंह फेरे’, ‘हम तुझसे मोहब्बत करके सनम’ ‘एक बेवफ़ा से प्यार किया’, ‘जबसे बलम घर आएं’, ‘आ जाओ तड़पते हैं अरमाँ’ …. यह गीत लोकप्रियता की चरम सीमा लांघ गए थे …
‘बरसात’, ‘आवारा’ के बाद अगले १० साल में उनकी ‘आह’, ‘पतिता’, ‘शिकस्त’, ‘दाग’, ‘मयुरपंख’, ‘श्री ४२०’, ‘राजहठ’, ‘पटरानी’, ‘न्यू दिल्ली’, ‘बसंत बहार’, ‘चोरी चोरी’, ‘कठपुतली’, ‘छोटी बहन’, ‘हलाकू’, ‘यहूदी’ आदि फिल्में प्रदर्शित हुईं और वें इन फिल्मों में बेहतर से बेहतरीन गीत पेश करते गए … ‘बसंत बहार’ का ख़ास जिक़्र करना चाहूंगा … यह फ़िल्म ‘LITMUS TEST’ थी और ‘एस-जे’ इसमें आसानी से अव्वल नंबर्स लेकर उत्तीर्ण हुए थे … इस फिल्म के सब गीत रागदारी पर आधारित थे, विभिन्न रागों का प्रयोग किया था और उन्हें इस प्रयोग में जबरदस्त कामयाबी मिली थीं.
‘केतकी,गुलाब,जूही,चंपक बन फूले’ – राग – ‘बसंत बहार’, ‘सूर ना सजे’ – राग – ‘पिलू बसंत’, ‘जा जा रे जा बालमवा’ – राग ‘झिंझोटी’, ‘नैन मिले चैन कहाँ’ – राग – ‘रागेश्री’, ‘दुनिया ना भाये मुझे’ – राग ‘तोड़ी’, ‘कर गया रे मुझपे जादू’ – राग ‘रागेश्री’, ‘बड़ी देर भयी’ – राग ‘दरबारी’
एस-जे का यह मुँहतोड़ और क़रारा जवाब था, उन लोगों को जो, उन्हें सिर्फ पश्चिमी ढंग की रचनाओं का संगीतकार मानते थे, जो एस-जे की क़ाबिलियत पर प्रश्नचिन्ह लगाते थे … ‘बसंत बहार’ के बाद यह लोग हमेशा के लिए ख़ामोश हो गए … ‘पटरानी’ की रचनाएँ भी इसी स्तर की थी, तो ‘हलाकू’ और ‘यहुदी’ में अरेबिक ढंग का संगीत था, जो उन फिल्मों की ज़रूरत थी… बसंत बहार के बाद एस – जे और खुल कर, आत्मविश्वास के साथ अपनी रचनाएँ पेश करने लगे … उनकी संगीतशैली में अब और ख़ुमार आया था …पश्चिमी, अरेबिक, और शास्त्रीय संगीत तीनों ढंग में उन्होंने अपनी रचनाएँ पेश की थी और संगीत रसिकों के लिए यह बेशक़ीमती उपहार था … परिपूर्ण अभ्यास, कठोर संगीत साधना से उन्होंने संगीतकला को नया आयाम दिया था, नयी पहचान दी थी …
‘एस-जे’ की इन फिल्मों के कुछ यादगार गीत …
‘पतिता’ – ‘याद किया दिलने कहाँ हो तुम, ‘है सबसे मधुर गीत वो’, ‘किसी ने अपना बनाके मुझको’ … ‘आह’ – ‘आजा रे अब मेरा दिल पुकारा’, ‘रात अँधेरी दूर सवेरा’, ये शाम की तनहाइयाँ’ … ‘श्री ४२०’ – ‘रमैय्या वस्तावैया’, ‘मेरा जूता है जापानी’, ‘इचक दाना बिचक दाना’, ‘प्यार हुआ इकरार हुआ’, ‘दिल का हाल सुनें दिलवाला’ ‘दाग’ – ‘ए मेरे दिल कहीं और चल’, ‘शिकस्त’ – ‘जब जब फूल खिले’, ‘कारे बदरा तू ना जा’, ‘चमके बिजुरियां’ ‘पटरानी’ – ‘चंद्रमा मदभरा, ‘बसंत बहार’ – ‘केतकी, गुलाब, जूही, चंपक बन फूले, सूर ना सजे, ‘राजहठ’ – ‘ये वादा करो चाँद के सामने’, ‘कठपुतली’ – ‘बोल री कठपुतली’ ‘छोटी बहन’ – ‘जाऊँ कहा बता ए दिल’, ‘भैया मेरे राखी के बंधन को निभाना’, मैं रंगीला प्यार का राही’ … ‘यहूदी’ – ‘ये मेरा दीवानापन है’, ‘मेरी जां मेरी जां’, ‘ ‘हलाकू’ – ‘दिल का ना करना एतबार कोई’, ‘अजी चले आवो’, ‘आजा के इंतजार में’ ‘चोरी चोरी’ – ‘आजा सनम मधुर चाँदनी में’, ‘पंछी बनू उडती फिरुं’, ‘अनाडी’ – ‘वो चांद खिला’, ‘सब कुछ सीखा हमनें ना सीखीं होशियारी’, ‘कन्हैया’ – ‘मुझे तुमसे कुछ भी ना चाहिये’, ‘
‘चोरी चोरी’ (१९५६) के अफ़लातून संगीत के लिए उन्हें ‘फ़िल्म फेयर पुरस्कार’ से सन्मानित किया गया …यह उनका पहला पुरस्कार था …शास्त्रीय संगीत के साथ पाश्चिमात्य,अरेबिक ऐसे सब संगीत प्रयोग सफल हुए थे … अब एस-जें के सामने मुक़ाबले में कोई खड़ा नही था, मुकाबला ख़ुद से ही था … संगीत साम्राज्य के वोही चक्रवर्ती सम्राट है इस बात को लेकर, अब किसी के मनमें कोई आशंका नहीं थी. एस-जें का साज़गार तबला, हारमोनियम, सतार, बांसरी, ढोलक, डफली, मटका, सनई इन पारंपारिक वाद्यों के साथ पियानो, गिटार, अकॉर्डियन, व्हायलिन, मँडोलिन, इलेक्ट्रिक गिटार, सैक्सोफोन, इलेक्ट्रिक ऑर्गन, ट्रम्पेट, बोंगो, कोंगो ऐसी आधुनिक साजों से सजा था, इन अमोघ अस्त्रों का अपनी फिल्मों में चतुराई से प्रयोग करके एस-जें लगातार रसिकों के दिलों का वेध लेते रहे, उन्हें सम्मोहित करते रहे… ५० – ६० साजिंदे चक्रवर्ती सम्राट एस-जे के दरबार में हाज़िर हमेशा हाज़िर रहते थे … ‘दत्तू ठेका’ तो घर घर में पहुँच चुका था…साथ कविराज – हसरत यह दरबारी राजकवियों की जोडीद्वारा निरंतर बेहतरीन गीत निर्मिती हो रही थी. १९६० से एस-जे पूरी सुरीली लय में थे, उनके द्वारा संगीतबद्ध की कई बेहतरीन फिल्में प्रदर्शित हुई. इनमें से कुछ प्रमुख थी, ‘जिस देश में गंगा बहती हैं’, ‘असली नकली’, ‘जब प्यार किसी से होता है’, ‘ससुराल’, ‘दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई’, ‘एक दिल सौ अफ़साने’, ‘आशिक़’, ‘कन्हैया’, ‘दिल एक मंदिर’, ‘जंगली’, ‘प्रोफेसर’, ‘दिल तेरा दीवाना’, ‘हमराही’, ‘जिंदगी’, ‘राजकुमार’, ‘संगम’, ‘लव्ह इन टोकियो’, ‘आरजू’, ‘जानवर’, ‘सूरज’, ‘तीसरी कसम’, ‘गबन’, ‘सांझ और सवेरा’, ‘आम्रपाली’, ‘अँन इव्हिनिंग इन पँरिस’, ‘दीवाना’, ‘दुनिया’, ‘मेरा नाम जोकर’, ‘प्रिंस’, ‘पहचान’, ‘ब्रह्मचारी’, ‘शिकार’, ‘रात और दिन’, ‘संन्यासी’, ‘अंदाज’ आदि इन फिल्मों में उनके अप्रतिम धुनों से सजे गीतों से उनका संगीत साम्राज्य और बढ़ता गया … अजरामर गीतों से समृद्ध होता गया.
‘एस-जे’ के ‘फ़िल्म फेअर पुरस्कार – १९५७ – चोरी चोरी, १९६० – अनाडी, १९६१ – दिल अपना और प्रीत पराई, १९६३ – प्रोफेसर, १९६७ – सूरज, १९६९ – ब्रम्हचारी, आख़री की ‘हॅट्रिक’ १९७१ – पहचान, १९७२ – मेरा नाम जोकर, १९७३ – बेईमान.
भारत सरकार द्वारा ‘पद्मश्री’ पुरस्कार से सन्मानित …
उनकी रागदारी पर आधारित कुछ रचनाएं …..
सदा सुहागिन राग – ‘भैरवी’
बरसात में हमसे मिले तुम सजन – बरसात रमैय्या वस्तावैय्या – श्री ४२० मेरा जूता हैं जापानी – श्री ४२० तेरा जाना दिल के अरमानों का लूट जाना – अनाडी दोस्त दोस्त ना रहा – संगम तुम्हें और क्या दूं मैं – आयी मिलन की बेला राजा की आयेगी बारात – आह कैसे समझाऊँ बडी नासमझ हो – सूरज जा जा रे जा बालमवा – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘शिवरंजनी’ आवाज़ दे के हमें – प्रोफेसर बहारों फूल बरसाओ – सूरज ओ मेंरे सनम दो जिस्म मगर – संगम दिलके झरोंखें में तुझको बिठाकर – ब्रम्हचारी चंद्रमा मदभरा – पटरानी
राग – ‘किरवाणी’ आई झुम झुम रात ये सुहानी – लव्ह मैरीज गीत गाता हूं मैं – लाल पत्थर याद ना जायें बीतें दिनों की – दिल एक मंदिर तुम्हें याद करते करते – आम्रपाली तुम जो हमारे मीत ना होते – आशिक जब भी ये दिल उदास होता हैं – सीमा मन रे तू ही बता क्या गाऊँ – हमराही
राग – ‘जयजयवंती’ मनमोहना बडें झूठें – सीमा सूनी सूनी सांस के सितार पर – लाल पत्थर
राग – ‘दरबारी कानडा’ हम तुझसे मोहब्बत करके सनम – आवारा तू प्यार का सागर है – सीमा कोई मतवाला आया मेरे द्वारे – लव्ह इन टोकियो छम छम बाजे रे पायलिंया – जाने अनजाने
राग – ‘झिंझोटी’ जा जा रे जा बालमवां – बसंत बहार जाऊँ कहाँ बता ए दिल – छोटी बहन तुम मुझे यूँ भूला ना पावोगे – पगला कहीं का
राग – ‘पहाडी’ मेरी अंखियों में बस गया कोई रे – बरसात प्रीत ये कैसी बोल – दाग मोरा नादान बालमा – उजाला
राग – ‘पिलू’ अजहूं ना आये बालमा – सांज और सवेरा दिन सारा गुजारा तोरे अंगना – जंगली मुरली बैरन भयी रे – न्यू दिल्ली
राग – ‘दरबारी’ राधिके तू ने बंसरी चुराई – बेटी बेटे झनक झनक तोरी बाजे पायलियां – मेरे हुजूर बड़ी देर भयी – बसंत बहार मुझे तुमसे कुछ भी न चाहिये – कन्हैया
राग – ‘भूपाली’ नील गगन की छांव में – आम्रपाली सायोनारा – लव्ह इन टोकियो
राग – ‘भीम पलासी’ देखो मेरा दिल मचल गया – सूरज तड़प ये दिन रात की – आम्रपाली
राग – ‘रागेश्री’ मेरे संग गा गुनगुना – जानवर कर गया रे मुझपे जादू – बसंत बहार नैन मिले चैन कहाँ – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘जोगिया’ दिल एक मंदिर है – दिल एक मंदिर
राग – ‘यमन कल्याण’ एहसान तेरा होगा मुझपर – जंगली
राग – ‘चारुकेशी’ बेदर्दी बालमा तुझको – आरजू
राग – ‘पिलू-बसंत’ सूर ना सजे – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘तोडी’ दुनिया ना भाये मोहे अब तो बुला ले – बसंत बहार
राग – ‘तिलक कामोद’ हम तेरे प्यार में सारा आलम – दिल एक मंदिर
राग – ‘गारा’ उनके खयाल आयें – लाल पत्थर
राग – ‘बसंत बहार’ केतकी,गुलाब,जूही चंपक बन फूले – बसंत बहार
इनके अलावा ऐसे सेकड़ों बहारदार गीत रचे थे, एस-जे की जोडीने .. वाकई अचाट, अफाट, अफ़लातून, अगम्य, अतर्क्य काम था यह…रात रात जाग कर उन्होंने अपना साम्राज्य खड़ा किया था … सालोंसाल संगीत की उपासना कर, इस साधकद्वयीने साक्षात ‘माँ सरस्वती को प्रसन्न किया था, सर पर माँ का ‘वरदहस्त’ होने की वजह से, गीत को किस राग में बाँधना, किस गायक /गायिका से /किस नायक /नायिका के लिये गवाना, ५०-६० साजिंदे संभालना, उन्हें स्वरलिपी लिखकर देना यह सब बहुत जटिल था,लेकिन इन प्रतिभासंपन्न संगीत सम्राटोंनें उसे आसान बना दिया. ‘एस-जें’ का संगीत, उनके सभी गीत हमारे ह्रदय में सदा बसे रहेंगे…उनके कुछ विविधता भरे गीत … मेरे और आपके भी पसंदीदा.
‘केतकी,गुलाब, जूही,चंपक बन फूले’ – पं.भीमसेन जोशी – मन्ना दा की जुगलबंदी अविस्मरणीय.
‘याद किया दिल ने’ – हसरत-एस-जे-लता-हेमंत कुमार का बेहद खूबसूरत, मनमोहक गीत.
‘आ अब लौट चले’ – व्हायलिन की झंकार, लताजी के आलाप हृदयस्पर्शी.
‘ये मेरा प्रेमपत्र पढ़कर’ – इस गीत का लुत्फ़ उठाना है तो, यह गीत परदेपर शुरू होने से पांच मिनट पहले ध्यान से देखियेगा फिर आप एस-जे के क़माल की, उनके करिश्मे की खुल कर दाद ज़रूर दोगे.
‘दोस्त दोस्त ना रहा’, ‘दिलके झरोखें में तुझको बिठाकर’ – एस-जे के सर्वोत्तम पियानो गीत.
‘हर दिल जो प्यार करेगा’ – त्रिकोणीय सुंदर प्रेमाभिव्यक्ती … राधासे एकतरफ़ा प्रेम करनेवाले सुंदर का भरी महफिल में मुहब्बत का खुला इज़हार, ‘राधा’ संयम से वास्तव बयां करती है, तो ‘गोपाल’ सुंदर की दोस्ती के खातिर अपना और राधा का प्यार बख़ूबी छुपाता है, और जब वोह ‘अपना के हर किसीको बेगाना जायेगा’ कहता है, तब ‘संगम’ का अंत क्या होगा ? यह समझ में आता हैं.
‘आ गले लग जा’ – एप्रिल फूल के इस गीत की प्रस्तावना (Prelude) ८.३० मिनट की.
‘देखो अब तो किसको नहीं है खबर’ – गिटार वादन झक्कास, आशा – रफ़ी साहब ने इसे मस्ती में गाया है, पश्चिमी ढंग का, ‘बीटल्स’ के “I wanna hold your hand” पर आधारित, लेकीन ‘ओरिजिनल’से भी बेहतरीन.
‘आजा रे आ ज़रा आ लहराके आ ज़रा आ’ – गिटार, वादन और रफ़ीसाहब का ‘मिडास टच’.
‘ये मेरा दीवानापन हैं’ – प्यार में टूटें हुए दिल की पुकार … तब भी और आज भी.
‘ये शाम की तनहाइयाँ’, ‘रसिक बलमा’, ‘तेरा जाना दिलके अरमानों का लूट जाना’, ‘बेदर्दी बालमा तुझको मेरा मन याद करता हैं’ – प्रेमी के विरह में प्रेमिका अक्सर इन्ही गीतों कों गुनगुनाती है.
‘ए फूलों की रानी बहारों की मलिका’, ‘ऐ गुलबदन’ – प्रेमिका की तारीफ़ प्रेमी आज भी ऐसे ही करता है.
‘अजी रूठकर अब कहाँ जाईयेगा’ – प्रेमिका की मीठी और सुरीली तकरार
‘प्यार आँखों से जताया तो बुरा मान गये’ – और ये प्रेमी की तकरार.
‘दिन सारा गुजारा तोरे अंगना’ – घर लौटने की इजाजत मांगती प्रेमिका.
‘होठों पे सच्चाई रहती हैं’ – भारतीय संस्कृती की पहचान, हर भारतीय इसे अभिमान से गायेगा, अव्वल नंबर का ‘मातृभूमि वंदन गीत’… कविराज ख़ुद डफली बजानें में माहिर थे, … राजसाब ने इसी डफली का साथ लेकर, अपनी फ़िल्म ‘जिस देश में गंगा बहती है’ का ‘राजू’ साकार किया था.
‘बहारों फूल बरसाओ’ – बँडपथक का अत्यंत प्रिय गीत, विवाह समारंभ में इसे अवश्य बजाया जाता है, हसरत साहब का पहला ‘फ़िल्म फेयर पुरस्कार’ विजेता गीत.
‘तुम्हें याद करते करते’ – सितार – सरोद लाजवाब, लताजी का अत्युत्कृष्ट गीत, कविराज – एस-जे का शायद आखरी.
‘सजन रे झूठ मत बोलो’ – ‘त्रिकालाबाधित सत्य’, ‘कविराज’ शैलेंद्र जी की सरल शब्दावली और एस-जे की सुरीली धुन, सदाबहार,अविस्मरणीय गीत.
‘आजा सनम मधुर चाँदनी में’, ‘दिल की नज़र से’, ‘वो चाँद खिला’ – शीतल चाँदनी रातों में घूमते हुए प्रेमी – प्रेमिकाओं के होठों पर होते है यह प्रेमगीत.
‘सब कुछ सीखा हमने ना सीखी होशियारी’ – असामाजिक तत्वों पर कविराज जी का प्रहार … यहां होशियारी का अर्थ मक्कारी होता हैं … इस देश के करोड़ो ईमानदार लोगों का कालजयी गीत … अकॉर्डियन पीसेस जबरदस्त.
‘हम भी है तुम भी हो’ – ‘सत-असत’ दोनो पहलू दर्शानेवाला गीत, कविराज जी की ‘प्रगल्भता’ लफ्जों में, एस- जे की ‘प्रतिभा’ धुनों में दिखाई देती हैं …एक बेहतरीन गीत जो, आज भी हृदय में बसा हुआ हैं.
‘तेरे बिना आग ये चाँदनी’ और बादमें आनेवाला ‘घर आया मेरा परदेसी’ – आवारा का यह भव्य ‘स्वप्न दृश्य गीत’ सिर्फ़ ‘न भूतो न भविष्यती’ … फिर कविराज और एस-जे लाजवाब,
‘हम तुझसे मोहब्बत करके सनम’, ‘रात अँधेरी दूर सवेरा’ ‘आजा रे अब मेरा दिल पुकारा’ – हसरत साब सिर्फ़ रोमँटिक शायर नही बल्कि सिद्धहस्त कवि थे …ये दर्दभरे गीत उनकी क़ाबिलियत की पुष्टी करते है.
‘अजहूँ ना आएँ बालमा’ – यह हसरत साहब की शास्त्रीय रचना अभी भी उतनी ही ताजगीभरी.
‘चाहे कोई मुझे जंगली कहे’ – सिर्फ़ और सिर्फ़ शम्मी कपूर के लिए बनाया गया. ‘जानेवाले ज़रा होशियार’ – सॅक्सोफोन मस्त, ‘राजकुमार’ शम्मी कपूर’ छा गए थे. आसमान से आया फरिश्ता’ – मदमस्त संगीत एस-जे का, ऐसे स्टंटस् उस दौर में शम्मी कपूर की ख़ासियत. ‘बदन पे सितारें’ – ‘एस-जे’ का झक्कास ऑर्केस्ट्रा. ‘खुली पलक में झूठा गुस्सा’ – वाकई जीना भी मुश्क़िल मरना भी मुश्क़िल कर दिया था एस-जे ने. ‘मेरी मोहब्बत’, ‘एहसान तेरा होगा मुझपर’, ‘तुम मुझे यूँ भूला ना पाओगे’ – भावुक ‘शम्मी’ गीत.
कविराज १९६६ में तो जयभाई १९७१ में, शंकर जी, हसरत साहब से, अलविदा कहकर इस दुनिया से चल दिये … महफ़िल सुनी सुनी हो गई थी … शंकर जी तन्हा हो गए थे … पहली मुलाक़ात से १९७१ तक उन्होंने जयकिशन जी को अपने छोटे भाई की तरह संभाला था … जयसाहब – पल्लवी जी की शादी में ‘कन्यादान’ की रस्म शंकरजी ने ही पूरी की थी …जयभाई मिलनसार व्यक्ति थे, फुरसद में फ़िल्म जगत की पार्टियों में जाते थे … तो शंकरजी ज़्यादा उन व्यक्तियों से मिलते थे जो संगीत जगत से संबंधित थे … फुरसद में भी संगीत की बारीकियां सीखते रहते … दोनों १० – १२ वाद्य बजाना सीखें थे … शंकरजी कुश्ती के शौक़ीन थे और ‘भरत नाट्यम’ में महारत हासिल थी … दोनों दिलदार थे …सामाजिक कार्यों में हमेशा आगे रहते थे … जयभाई का साथ छूटने के बाद शंकरजी ‘एस-जे’ के नाम से ही संगीत देते रहे और उनके पारिश्रमिक का आधा हिस्सा पल्लवी जी को पहुंचाते रहे …आखरी दिनों में सब क़रीबी दोस्त दूर हो गए थे, लेकिन वोह एक बहादुर योद्धा थे … अपने नाम के अनुसार ज़हर के घूंट पीते रहे …और अपना ग़म छुपाते रहे … हसरत साहब ही थे उनके साथ आख़री समय तक … २६ अप्रेल १९८७ को शंकर जी भी चले गए दुनिया से विदा लेकर और उनके साथ संगीत का सुरीला सफ़र ख़त्म हुआ … दास्ताँ खत्म हुई पर उनका संगीत अमर हैं, और सदियों तक रहेगा ! सच कहूँ तो … ‘एस-जे’, उनका अद्वितीय संगीत यह क़िताब का विषय है, उनके सभी गीतों का यहाँ ज़िक्र और मूल्यमापन करना असंभव बात है … १९४९ में शंकर – जयकिशन – कविराज – हसरत यह चार असामान्य कलाकार दुनिया के सामने आएं, राज कपूर साहब की बरसात में … बरसात से ही ‘संगीत सुवर्ण युग’ शुरू हुआ … अगले २० – २२ साल सर्वोत्तम हिंदी सिने गीत संगीत निर्मिती करके इन ‘FANTASTIC FOUR‘ ने उनके गीत -संगीत द्वारा अन्य संगीतकारों के मुक़ाबले, इस ‘सुवर्ण युग’ को सबसे ज्यादह चमक दी, ऐसा कहा जाएं, तो ज्यादती नही होगी … ‘कविराज’ शैलेंद्र – ‘राजकवि’ हसरत जयपुरी और अन्य गीतकारों ने आशयपूर्ण, समर्पक गीत लिख कर उन्हें समर्थ साथ दिली … एस-जे ने उनके संगीत निर्देशन में सभी गायिका/गायकों से बेहतरीन गंवाया था, उनकी आवाज़ का सही उपयोग किया था … लता, आशा, मन्ना दा, मुकेश, रफ़ी साहब, सुमन कल्याणपुर, शारदा जी इनके गायें गीत सर्वाधिक लोकप्रिय हुए थे मूल संगीत का ढांचा, नींव कायम रख कर, पारंपरिक साजों के साथ आधुनिक साजों का मिलाफ़ कर, गीतों को नया रूप देने वाले एस-जें ही थे, उनकी ज़्यादातर रचनाएँ रागदारी पर आधारित थी, गीत की प्रस्तावना (Prelude), मुखड़े और अंतरे के बीच का संगीत (Interlude), तथा गीत का अंत इन तीनों में मास्टर्स रहें, … हिंदी फिल्मों के ‘सुवर्ण संगीत युग’ के आधुनिक शिल्पकार, विविधतापूर्ण संगीत निर्मिती करनेवाले, ‘चक्रवर्ती संगीत सम्राट’ ‘एस-जें’ को, ‘कविराज शैलेंद्र’, हसरत साहब को सब संगीत प्रेमियों का सलाम …!
What Pyarelal-ji has to say about Shankar-Jaikishan in one of his interview..few excerpts..
“I love Naushad Saheb’s music, though I don’t agree with his point that one need not look beyond Indian classical music for good music. A composer has to give what the story or the situation of the film demands.
Q. Which composer would you rate as the best in the 1950’s and 1960’s..?
Look, I don’t believe in comparisons. Having said that, I would say that Laxmi-ji and I liked Shankar-Jaikishan the most. We were so fond of them that both of us used to copy all their mannerisms.
Q. What was it that Shankar-Jaikishan had which other composer didn’t..?
You tell me what they didn’t have. Is there a single flaw you can see in them as composers..? Is there any other composer who consistently gave good music in so many films..? Is there a single kind of music they have not made..? If Naushad Saheb composed Baiju Bawra, Shankar-Jaikishan followed with Basant Bahar. What superb music they gave for Raj Kapoor films! In fact, I’ll be honest and say that while we won the best composer award for Dosti in 1964, I liked Shankar-Jaikishan’s score for Sangam better!
And he concluded by saying that very early in their career, they had started composing separately. But in spite of their composing separately, they were able to give their music a distinct identity, a brand. That was their greatness.”
THE HINDI FILM MUSIC EMPEROR SHANKAR-JAIKISHAN (SJ)
TRIBUTE TO MY MENTOR SJ
BY ROMESH DALAL
(Don’t forget to watch the “you tube” site at the bottom)
Shankar-Jaikishan (SJ) are known to be the most versatile composer-duo, the Hindi film Industry was ever blessed with! SJ were the pioneers in popularizing Indian film music not only in India but also overseas. Who can forget the immortal songs like `Awara hoon’, `Ghar aya mera pardesi’ and `Mera joota hai japani’? These are the compositions that made Raj Kapoor a superstar and made every one to take notice of Hindi film music around the world. `Awara hoon’ and `Mera joota hai Japani’ are still a rage in Middle East, Africa, Russia and China.
They were the only music directors who were presented FILMFARE AWARDS BY THE THEN EGYPT’S PRESIDENT REV. ABDUL GAMMAL NASSER IN 1962-1963 who was on the official visit to INDIA – long live the music of S-J THE TOPPERS OF HINDI FILM MUSIC.
S-J were the first music-composers to understand, realize and demonstrate the important role, which the orchestra can play in enhancing the overall impact of the song. They revolutionized the use of orchestra and interlude music of songs and made these as integral and inseparable parts of their compositions rather than using these as mere fillers, as was the practice before their advent on the horizon of Hindi film music. That is why prelude, interlude and background music of many of their songs is as notable, hum-able & melodious, as the tune of the main song. Quite often, their songs cannot be reproduced impressively without playing their interludes.
Due to their vast knowledge and command over various forms of music (classical, folk, oriental, western, to name a few) Shankar-Jaikishan could do full justice to any film irrespective of the theme & subject of the film! They amply demonstrated this by creating memorable music for themes as diverse as `Basant Bahar’ & `Amrapali’ on one hand, `An evening in Paris’ & `Brahmchari’ on the other hand & like `Teesri Kasam’ on an entirely different front. Needless to say, irrespective of the success or failure of the film commercially, their music invariably came out a success.
While SJ are widely known for their memorable and immortal melodies for various films of Raj Kapoor (Barsaat, Awara, Sri 420, Chori-Chori, Anari, Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti hai, Sangam, Mera Naam Joker) Shammi Kapoor (Jungli, Professor, Dil Tera Deewana, Brahmachari, Janwar, Budtameez, An evening in Paris, Pagla kaheen ka, Jawan Mohabbat, Prince, Jane Anjane) and Rajendra Kumar (Zindagi, Dil ek Mandir, Dil apna aur preet parai, Ai Milan ki bela, Arzoo, Sasural), they also gave hit music for several of the movies of other matinee idols like Dev Anand (Asli Naqli, Love Marriage, Jab Pyar Kisise Hota Hai, Pyar-Mohabbat), Manoj kumar (Haryali aur Rasta, Pehchan, Sanyasi) and Jitendra (Mere huzoor), to name a few. They were the ones to give Shammi Kapoor the `Yahoo’ image with their revolutionary songs `Yahoo, chahe koi mujhe jungle kahe’ and `Ai ai ya karun main kya suku, suku’. Rajendra Kumar was called `Jubilee’ star, since all Rajendra Kumar films with music by SJ celebrated jubilees! As you know when “BARSAT” album was released in 1949 as SJ’s first legendary musical mark. At that time under the famous director MEHBOOB KHAN had “ANDAZ” album created by NAUSHAD, that expected to be a big hit. But then because of BARSAT’s huge success, MEHBOOB KHAN told NAUSHAD “OUR ANDAZ ALBUM IS COMPLETELY WASHED AWAY BY BARSAT”. This is the real testimony given by MEHBOOB KHAN about SJ. SJ WERE THE ONLY MUSIC DIRECTOR THEY CHARGE MORE MONEY FOR THEI MUSIC THEN THEIR LEADING HERO IN THE FILM.
Contrary to the popular belief that SJ mainly created popular light-music-oriented songs, if one counts the total number of their classical-music-based songs, one realizes in amazement that they also played a very significant role in taking the Indian classical music to the masses. The success of their classical-music-based songs too is un-paralleled such as in Basant Bahar (`Sur na saje kya gaun main’: Manna Dey, `Bhay bhanjana vandana sun hamari’: Manna Dey, `Badi der bhai kab loge khabar more Ram’: Rafi, `Main piya teri tu mane ya na mane’: Lata), Seema (`Manmohana bade jhoothhe’: Lata, `), Amrapali (`Jao re jogi tum jao re`: Lata), Mere Huzoor (`Jhanak jhanak tori baje payaliya’: Manna Dey), Love in Tokyo (`Koi matwala aya mere dware’: Lata), Jane Anjane (`Chham Chham baje re payaliya: Manna Dey), Sanjh aur savera (`Ajahun na aaye baalma sawan beeta jaye’: Rafi-Suman Kalyanpur), Beti Bete (`Radhike tune bansari churayi’: Rafi), Lal-Pathhar (Re man sur mein ga: Manna Dey-Asha Bhonsle), Chori Chori(Rasik balma: lata ), Mera Naam Joker (Kate na kate Raina: Manna Dey- Asha Bhonsle) and numerous others.
To say that Shankar-Jaikishan understood the taste of the masses would be an understatement; on the contrary, they shaped the taste of the masses to their own innovative will, by their charming, age-less melodies. They created hit after hit so consistently that their films made silver/golden jubilees, quite often solely on the strength of their music. Their music catered to classes and masses alike; while most of their `popular’ compositions were `classy’ in content, their more `classy’ compositions had surprising `mass-appeal’. NO other music composers have so much variety as Shankar-Jaikishan. They hold the record for maximum number of (9) FilmFare Best music awards, which remains an unconquered feat up till now!
As for their individual roles in music, one historian notes the interesting fact that Shanker and Jaikishan had a secret pact between them — that Shanker would do the classical compositions, and Jaikishan the background score. Jai’s background music skills will always remain a legend in musical circles. His compositions magically fitted the scenes to a second, even without the timer that every other composer needs. Jaikishan loved raga “BHAIRAVI” that made him to name his daughter also “BHAIRAVI”.
“When I look back, I increasingly realize that if Gods could descend to the earth and bless us what else could they do but what Shankar Jaikishan did? Forget that they were humans … look at them for their work. Shankar was the form of Shiva with his damru from which emanated the finest rhythms and Jaikishan the Krishna whose flute enchanted us with the finest of melodies.”
If you read the story about Prof. Balasaheb Bhide…. What a Devotee of the Shankar Jaikishan music. One has to read his story about “Pune Life Style visits the musical world of Prof. Balasaheb Bhide” where it is memorialized his love for SJ music.
RAFI WON THREE (OUT OF SIX) FILMFARE AWARDS UNDER S-J FILM MUSIC SONGS
A tribute to their artistry came when their song “Jaan Pehchan ho” sung by Mohammed Rafi from their 1965 movie `Gumnam’, was included in the opening scenes of the Hollywood movie `GHOST WORLD’ released in 2005 (i.e. full 40-years after the creation of the song by S-J!). Prelude of “Baharo phool Barsao” was used in song of English album by JEM. Hollywood movie “The guru“ too included a SJ song from Sasural. Even when I think of one of the great directors and actors Sohrab Modi who made many historical movies but he got real recognition by his movie “RAJHATH” due to its extra ordinary music and songs created by Shanker–Jaikishan. What a great pair of musician I have never witnessed after their departure from the Bollywood.
To say that Shankar Jaikishan led and others followed would be an understatement. If Laxmikant Pyarelal emulated their dressing style, Kalyanji Anandji imitated their compositional style for the first five years. Anu Malik, Anand-Milind, Nadin-Shravan, and A R Rahman of our times built a lot of their standing on ‘adaptations’ of S-J tunes.
One of the other shades of the character of the legendary duo was that they had encouraged a number of singers both male and female, at an era when the other Music Directors preferred only Rafi and Lata. They have composed songs for Subir Sen, “ Dil mera ek aas ka panchi” in the film Aas ka panchi-1960, Suman Kalyanpur, “Dil ek mandir hai,” in the film Dil Ek Mandir-1963, Manna Dey, “Yeh Raat Bheegi Bheegi” in the film Chori Chori-1956, Asha Bhosle, “Mur Murke na dekh Mur Mur ke” in the film Shri 420-1955, Sharda, “Titli Uri” in the film Suraj, 1966, Mukesh, “Yeh mera diwanapan hai” in the film Yahudi, 1958, Talat Mehmood, “Koi nahi mera is duniya mai” in the film Daag, 1955, Kishore Kumar, “Zindagi ek safar hai suhana” in the film Andaz,1971. The songs were complimented with brilliant orchestration, which had added lights to the composition of the giant.
Shankar Jaikishan also recorded with almost all the popular singers of the golden era including Mohd Rafi, Kishore Kumar, Mahendra Kapoor, Manna Dey, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Suman Kalyanpur and Mukesh. Of these, Mohd. Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar, Manna Dey, Suman Kalyanpur, and Mukesh had most of their popular songs recorded with Shankar Jaikishan as compared to other music composers.
Besides the above mentioned established singers, Shankar Jaikishan also worked with other notable singers like Geeta Dutt, Begum Akhtar, Mubarak Begum, Subir Sen, Sharda, Sulakshana Pandit, Anuradha Paudwal, Aarti Mukherji, Preeti Sagar, Krishna Kalle, Suresh Wadkar, Chandrani Mukherji and Hemlata. They also recorded English songs for the film “Bombay Talkies” in Usha Uthup’s voice. Jaikishan loved raga Bhairavi, which he used in many of his popular songs.
Shankar usually teamed up with lyricist Shailendra while Jaikishan preferred to work with Hasrat Jaipuri.
The other aspects of their creation include blending the Indian flavour with the foreign tunes wherever the films were picturised. Best examples can be the song “Sayonara sayonara” in the film “Love in Tokyo”, 1965, had Japanese orchestration, the other being “Raat ke humsafar” in the film “An Evening in Paris”, 1967, had French flavour. Besides their use of few instruments showed the class of their own, Accordion in “Sub kuch sikha Humne na siki hoshiari” in the film Anari, 1959, Saxophone in “Ai sanam jis ne tujhe chand sa surat di hai” in the film Diwana, 1967, Synthesized Harmonium played by V. Balsara in “Awara Hoon” in the film Awara, 1951.
One of the reasons why Shankar Jaikishan did not get the acknowledgement of providing immortal tunes in that era is because it could not be identified as which song is composed by Shankar and which song is composed by Jaikishan. Otherwise Naushad was awarded with Dada Saheb Phalke for his brilliant contribution to Indian music, Majrooh Sultanpuri also received the same award in the lyricist category, Shankar – Jaikishan was deprived of that honour. The other reason may be that they had worked with Raj Kapoor for the longest period and most of the credit of the unforgettable tunes were taken away by Raj Kapoor himself. An archive should be created for the rich and classical creations of Shankar Jaikishan where the works can be preserved for future generations to take inspiration from.
CLASSICAL INSTRUMENTS: SITAR, SAROD, GUITAR, VIOLIN, TAMBURA, HARMONIUM, ETC.
They made the best use of Violin in songs and Movie background music. Jaikishan is considered the master in giving the Movie background music.
SJ also experimented of many different type of musical instruments including FLUTE (Pannalal Ghosh), Piano, organ, Accordion, harmonica, piccolo, clarinet, oboe, saxophone, bassoon, trumpet, trombone, tuba, Harp, Xylophone, & Bagpipes. They used each musical instrument so effectively that no other musician could use it successfully. They were the master of RAGAS, JAZZ, Rock & ROLL, CLASSICAL, FOLK MUSIC, & POPULAR MUSIC.
Let us take a DOZEN DHOLAK SJ examples in brief…
We begin with two from Yahudi (1958).
‘Dil Mein Pyar Ka Toofan‘ has the theka ‘Dhita Dhindhinak’ resounding all over the song all over the place! And that theka created a tempest … a listener almost finds himself airborne!
‘Meri Jaan Meri Jaan‘ ‘Dhig Dhadha Tik Dhadha’ is the core theka. Go to the line ‘Koi kya kare haye, koi kya kare?’ and listen to the long dayaa-alone piece over it! Yet another innovation which made this song simply remarkable for the dholak accompaniment.
‘Haye Tu Hi Gaya Mohe Bhool Re’ has ‘Tigdha tirkit Taktaa tirkit’ or ‘Kradhin tirkit Taktaa tirkit’ as the core theka and this song has many siblings … Main Piya Teri’, ‘Tera Jalwa Jisne Dekha’, ‘Manbhavan Ke Ghar Jaaye Gori’, ‘Dil Ka Na Aarna Aitbaar Koi’, ‘Nache Ang Ang Tere Aage’, ‘Aansoo Ki Aag Leke’, ‘Bhaiyya Mere Raakhi Ke Bandhan Ko Nibhaana’, ‘Begaani Shaadi Mein, Abdulla Deewana’.- all have the stamp of ‘Tigdha tirkit Taktaa tirkit’ or ‘Kradhin tirkit Taktaa tirkit’ as the rhythm refrain!
‘Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee’ both the mukhada and the antara begins with a restrained ‘Tak tirkit Tak tirkit’. Or in ‘Tum Roothi Raho’, we find the simple but effective ‘Taktaktak Taktaktak”!
Let us now consider one of the most exciting examples … Let us begin with the simpler version which we get in ‘Din Saara Guzaara Tore Angana’. Listen to the ‘Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat’. When and where? You cannot miss it! Simply unmistakable!
And now go to ‘Kashmir Ki Kali Hoon Main’ where you will meet the same old ‘Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat’ in a truly pulsating form! And towards the end of the song … ’Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat’ changes its form to ’Dhirdhirgat______ Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat’ [a (1_+ 2) variation] to launch the mukhda … ‘Kashmir Ki Kali Hoon Main’ and takes the listener completely by surprise! Many SJ songs … ‘Bahar Banke Woh Musquaraye’, ‘Surat Hasin, Lagata Hai Diwaana’ and ‘Maine Dekha Tha Sapanon Mein Ik Chandrahar’ have the same ‘Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat’ in a simple [1+1+1] format! Check it out!
Let us take yet another example from Gaban – just to listen to the dholak baya! ‘Ehsaan Mere Dil Pe Tumhara Doston’. Violins begin this song in characteristic SJ style and Rafi goes solo with the first line of the mukhda, and when he repeats the mukhda just watch the dholak baya come in playfully! And listen to that baay throughout this number! Little wonder that the SJ fan too reciprocates the gratitude that rafi exudes through the song!
‘Ghar Aaya Mera Pardesi’ from Awara is possibly one of the exemplary songs for having a wonderfully brilliant theka and a range of laggis all around. Although strictly not a dholak song (for it was a dholaki song), the recording of this song was stalled for hours because no one – Raj Kapoor, SJ and their entire team was happy with the rhythm accompaniment. Someone suggested the name of a dholaki player called and Lala Gangawane was ushered in called – a tall strappling man carrying a little dholaki walked into the studio well past midnight! As SJs assistant and the man in charge of their rhythm section Dattaram has mentioned “Lalabhau poured out his heart in the song, he played every possible variation, every possible nuance and the result was pure magic”. Do listen to this song once as it mingles with Lata, the mandolin and the chorus as well as the range of instruments!
When you listen to another SJ classic – ‘Baat Baat Pe Rootho Na’ which too has extraordinary dholak accompaniment, make it a point to catch the laggi “Dhin taak taa dhin Dhi taak taa dhettaa” played over the last line of every antraa for e.g.,”Jeevan Safar Mein Sukh Ho Ya Dukh Ho, Rona Padega Akele”.
Now ‘Manbhavan Ke Ghar Aaye Gori’, presents another fascinating imporvisation! After every antara when the line ‘Hame Na Bhoolaana’ the dholak effortlessly breaks into a double paced laggi!
‘Dil Ka Na Karna Aitbaar Koi’ has ‘Dhitta ge tin, Titta ge dhin’ as the core theka construct. OK? Now years later over the ‘Tumhari qasam tum bahut yaad aaye’ & ‘Sau Saal Pehle’ has the same construct repeated!
‘O mora naadan baalma’ Come to the line ‘Na jaane ji ki baat, o hoi, na maane ji ki baat’ and catch the day-alone play over that line. It is simply astounding! Two LP songs immediately come to mind … Hasta Hua Noorani Chehra and Ooi Maa Ooi Maa Yeh Kya Ho Gaya … now is this what you call inspiration? Such variations were ‘routinely’ deployed by SJ so to speak … so much so that professional musicians working in the film ndustry today confes that it is simply impossible for the to even emulate such a feat!
The ‘Dhigtak Dhigi dhagi’ chapter!
Amongst all the SJ dholak theka innovations it is the zesty ‘Dhigtak Dhigi dhagi’, which has somehow defied boundaries of space and time! Commonly known as Dattaram theka, after the person who created it, SJ used it wonderfully in several of their songs. Actually, the theka can be seen to evolve over a period of time. The theka seems to have come into its own after SJ began using it abundantly over the years! And so did many other music directors! Check out the development over a decade and a half!
10 SJ songs based on Dattaram Theka
Nanhe Munne Bachche
Boot Polish, 1953
Mera Joota Hain Japani
Shree 420, 1955
Pyar Hua Iqraar Hua
Shree 420, 1955
Woh Chaand Khilaa
Chhoti Bahen 1959
Main Rangila Pyar Ka Raahi
Chhoti Bahen 1959
Tune Mera Dil Le Liya
Rikshe Pe Mere Tum Aa Baitho
Dil Tera Diwana 1962
Jane Mera Dil Kise Dhoond Raha Hain
Laat Saheb 1967
Parde Mein Rahne Do
Let us quickly take a survey of the other rhythm instruments of SJ and of course the tabla deserves priority.
SJ’s used tabla together with the dholak in some slow paced songs. This combination seemed to be aimed at bringing to the fore the sharp chaati sound of the tabla, while the dholak provided the low-pitched bayaa support. Listen to this fascinating combination in ‘Din Saara Guzara Tore Angana’ (Junglee 1961), ‘Tumko Hamari Umar Lag Jaaye’ (Aaye Milan Ki Bela, 1964) and ‘Tumhari Kasam Tum Bahut Yaad Aaye’ (Gaban, 1966).
Left to itself the tabla would usually provide a fully filled-in theka to the song. Consider two songs to ring out this contrast. ‘Unke Sitam Ne Loot Liya’ (Kaali Ghata, 1951) has the rather insipid, simple waltz-like tabla theka. Come 1956 and ‘Aaja Ke Intezar Mein’ from Halaku gets a filled-in tabla. The same filled-in tabla is there in ‘So Ja Re So Ja Mere’ (Kathputli, 1957) as well. A different version of the filled-in accompaniment is seen in ‘Ja Ja Re Ja Balamawa’ (Basant Bahar 1956).
When the rhythms of SJ created the mood and ambience for a song it often happened so subtly that most listeners experienced the impact without realizing what was happening in the beats in the background and how. Take the example of ‘Na Chhedo Kal Ke Afsane’ (Raat Aur Din, 1967). The character on screen is inebriated and the tabla keeps to off- beat steps, underlining the stupor of the lady. The theka their tabla keeps in ‘Lakho Taare Aasman Mein’ (Hariyali Aur Rasta, 1962) is unique and an extension of the filled-in playout form it always followed. When SJ used the Jhaptaal too they have used it in a variety of contexts: ‘Tumhare Hain Tumse Dayaa Maangte Hain’ (Boot Polish, 1953), ‘ Kahan Jaa Raha Hain’ (Seema, 1955), ‘Bhay Bhanjana Vandana Sun Hamari ‘ (Basant Bahar, 1956), ‘Mujhe Tumse Kuchh Bhi Na Chahiye’ (Kanhaiyya, 1959) and ‘Masoom Chehara’ (Dil Tera Diwana, 1962).
It will be an understatement to say SJ gave bongo and congo their own places of pride in the context of Hindi film music. Most of their songs, including their Dholak songs would have an interlude on bongo or congo. Notable amongst these are ‘Baat Baat Mein Rootho Na’, ‘Aaja Sanam Madhur Chandni Mein Hum’, ‘Dil Mein Pyar Ka Toofan’, ‘Tera Jaana’, ‘Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee’, ‘Mera Dil Ab Tera O Sajana’, ‘Kashmir Ki Kali Hoon Main’.
Take a song like ‘Sab Kuch Seekha Hum Ne’ (Anari). The bongo-congo combination is accompanying this remorseful number at a furious pace. However, the beats are dampened and they create the backdrop for Mukesh’s soulful rendition of the song. Many an amateur player in their enthusiasm, get stumped with this song, because their rhythm accompaniment gets ebullient rather than somber! The bongo-combination would follow the changes in pitches of the music when played with a prelude or interlude. Apart from ‘Sab Kuchh Seekha Hum Ne’, a few examples where this stood out are ‘Dhadakne Lagta Hai Mera Dil’, ‘Tera Jalwa’, ‘Chheda Mere Dil Ne’.
However, the verve of the SJ bongo-congo combination left their impact on milions of listeners … sample these songs to find out … Kahe Jhoom Jhoom Raat Yeh Suhani’ (Love Marriage, 1959), ‘ Dheere Dheere Chal’ (Love Marriage), ‘Hum Matwale Naujawan’ (Shararat, 1959), ‘Duniya Walon Se Door’ (Ujala), ‘Aankhon Mein Rang Kyon’ (Ek Phool Char Katen, 1960), ‘Jab Pyar Kisi Se Hota Hain’, ‘Chahe Koi Mujhe Junglee Kahe’ (Junglee), ‘Aiyaiya sukkoo sukkoo’ (Junglee), ‘Dil Tera Deewana’ (D.T.D.), ‘ Khuli Palak Mein’ (Professor 1962), ‘Yaha Koi Nahi Tere Mere Siva’ (Dil Ek Mandir 1963), ‘Hoshiyar Jaane Wale’ (Rajkumar, 1964), ‘Tere Dil Ke Paas Hi Hain Meri’ (Sangam, 1964), ‘Chehere Pe Giri Julphe’ (Suraj, 1966), ‘Unse Mili Nazar’ (Jhook Gaya Aasman, 1968).
As with the dholak, there were some very innovative styles of pickup after a pause, or at the very beginning. Who can forget the pickup in ‘Sub Kuch Seekha’ and ‘Chahe Koi Mujhe Junglee Kahe’, the unusual ones with slowly released dampings which is also called the bongo slide in ‘Kahe Jhoom Jhoom Raat’, ‘Dheere Dheere Chal’, ‘Khuli Palak Mein’. There were songs where SJ played the congo and dholak or tabla in tandem for an added effect. Examples are ‘Haye Meri Uljhi Najook Nazar’ (Aas Ka Panchhi), ‘O Shama Mujhe Phook De’ (Hariyali Aur Raasta), ‘O Sanam Tere Ho Gaye Hum’ (Aashiq), ‘Har Dil Jo Pyar Karega’ (Sangam), ‘Mujhe Tum Mil Gaye Humdum’ (Love In Tokyo).
Almost every song had a significant component of side rhythm comprising of cymbals (jhanj), khanjiri and maracus. And each had its distinct place within the song. The kanji and maracus would alternate depending upon the lines within the song: one would play for the mukhada lines; another would come over the antara lines. And each of them played out the beat to the full, creating a kind of filled in pattern that would swiftly follow the changes in the beat of the main percussion instrument, including those switch pieces we heard earlier. Whenever the jhanj played, it would keep a lovely off beat pattern, in sharp contrast to the traditional and worn out style of ‘keeping the beat’.
In today’s world of synthesized sounds, the rhythms created by SJ and their team continues to sound fresh and also remain as hallmarks of standards for any composer or musician. Many people ask the question: What is it about the music of the Goden Era that makes it attractive even to the teenager of today? The answer is never simple. One of the answers is in these complex rhythms, which despite being complex, went in a package that touched the layperson, which probably never even touched a musical instrument in life but firmly believed that it was the song of his or her heart!
This article is meant to be a tribute to the entire SJ team – Shankar, Jaikishan, Dattaram, Sebastian and all those musician masters. It is a humble attempt to recognize these rhythm players & their body of work, which remains with us as a treasure of unforgettable rhythms.
Music Maestros: remembering Shanker-Jaikishan – MUST SEE
To cull a short list of their monumental songs would, therefore, be well nigh impossible. It’s, quite simply, awesome: from Raj Kapoor’s Barsaat, with which the duo made its debut, in 1949, Basant Bahar, Shree 420,Awaara, Boot Polish, Anari,Halaku, Chori Chori, Sangam, Junglee, Love In Tokyo, Professor, Yahudi, Mera Naam Joker to Kal Aaj Aur Kal. You’d choose your pick — all supremely vintage-modern stuff.
This prompted me to think about some of the trivia facts about SJ. Each one of these facts could spawn a thread!
1. Asrani can be seen in the first row of chorus in the song, “Ab kahan jayen hum.” in’Ujala.’ He also appears in the movie, “Hare Kaanch ki Chudiyan” but we always think of his debut as “Umang”
2. Subhash Ghai lip-synched on several songs partially in ‘Umang’ but also “sang” the Rafi song completely in the same film, “Baabul kaun ghadi.”
3. Jaya Bhaduri never had the opportunity to sing a song of SJ. However, Jaya acted on the Asli Naqli song “Tujhe jeevan ki dor se” in Guddi with Dharmendra.
4. Amitabh never had the opportunity to sing a song of SJ. But Shankar’s favorite dummy words “Tandana Tandana.” became a mukhda of his (LP) song where he mimicked Mehmood. “Tandana Tandana.” words were first heard in “MayurPankh” and later in “Gumnaam”
5. “Gumnaam” becomes the only film ever that had music influenced by a Hollywood film and that influenced a Hollywood film in return! The two films are “Charade” and “Ghost World” respectively.
6. “Gumnaam” had Mehmood singing “Bhai Battoor”, which later became a song in Padosan. Mehmood also sang “Lal ghoda..” in “Shatranj” which became a full-fledged song in “Kunwaara Baap”
7. “Ram Teri” song “Sun Sayba..” is influenced by “I love you..” from “Sangam”
8. The tune for “Jaane kahan gaye woh din…” was first heard in background music of “Jis Desh mein…”
9. Tune of “O BASANTI PAWAN PAGAL” can be heard in movie “AWARA”.
10. The Goan tune for “Na maagoo sona chandi..” was first heard in background music of “Awara.” It was played just before the song “Dum bhar jo udhar moonh phere”
11. “Jaaon kahan bata ai dil” from “Chhoti Bahen” was influenced by the title music of “New Delhi”
12. “Mora nadaan balma” from “Ujala” was influenced by the title music of “Mayurpankh”
13. “Kisiki muskuraton pe” from “Anari” was influenced by the background music of “Shree 420”
14. “Sambhal ke karna..” tune from “Ek Phool Char Kaante” was used in the background of “Golmaal” by RD-Burman very often. SDB also used a tune from the same movie in “Chupke Chupke”
15. Besides Rajendra Kishan who wrote lyrics for “College Girl,” SJ also utilized the service of lyricist Deepak in “Boot Polish” when Shailendra was alive.
16. Though Shailendra was associated with Shankar, it was Hasrat Jaipuri who wrote the lyrics in Shankar’s solo venture, “Street Singer” produced by Chandrashekhar. Hasrat Jaipuri also appears in the movie. Shankar did so under the pseudonym, Suraj. The other movie he composed music for, under this name was the Marathi, “Tee Mee Navhech.”
17. Jaikishan appears in “Main Sundar Hoon” with Anand Bakshi, his only film with SJ.
18. Gulshan Bawra appears in two songs of SJ in “Beimaan” and “Jungle Mein Mangal.” He did not write lyrics for these movies but wrote lyrics for other SJ films like “Chori Chori,” (new) “Jaane Anjaane,” and “Aan Baan.”
19. Neeraj acted on the song “Paise ki Pehchan..” in the film “Pehchan” and also wrote the lyrics for the same.
20. Neeraj and Hasrat Jaipuri teamed together for SJ in the film “Dil Daulat Duniya” for a song. Later they also wrote all the lyrics for all songs of “Jungle mein Mangal.” The results weren’t great. I like the song “Tum Kitni khoobsoorat” They also wrote lyrics for Usha Khanna’s “Paani mein jale mera gora badan..” in “Munimji” (1973).
21. “Kismat Ka Khel” had a Lata song with dummy words that sounded like “Echo Echo.” Years later, Shankar used similar words in a song in “Naari” which happened to be the only SJ song sung by Yesudas (with Amit Kumar), “Neeche zameen, upar gagan.”
22. Director Prayaag Raaj yelled “Yahoo..” in the “Junglee” song whereas Shankar was responsible for “Ayaya Sukoo Sukoo..” Prayag Raaj later acted in “Bombay Talkie and also directed “Insaniyat” starring Shashi Kapoor and Madhu.
23. Dattaram lip-synched for the song, “Tum mere pyar ki.” from “Bombay Talkie” acting as a playback singer.
24. SJ were responsible for Usha Iyer’s first film songs in “Bombay Talkie” and this was about two years before her success in “Hare Rama Hare Krishna.”
25. Ustad Ali Akbar Khan played the sarod in “Suno Chhotisi Gudiya ki.” Pannalal Ghosh played the flute in “Main piya teri..” Hazara Singh played the electric guitar in “Tera teer….”, Manohari played the saxophone in “bedardi Balma.”
26. Bappi Lahiri’s father Aparesh Lahiri sang an SJ song in “Badshah” (I have not heard this one).
27. Famous classical singer Bhimsen Joshi sang a jugalbandi in “Basant Bahar” with Manna Dey.
28. Anuradha Paudwal, Alka Yagnik, Chandrani Mukerjee, Sharda, Dilraj Kaur all sang “Ari o sakhi..” for SJ together in “Kaanch ki Deewar.” Lead Stars Sanjeev Kumar, Smita Patil and Shankar all died within months after the release of the movie.
29. “Gaya Bachpan..” from “Ankhon Ankhon Mein” was the last song recorded by Jaikishan.
30. The movie “Preetam” has title music that is the same as that of “Mere Sanam” of OP Nayyar. The movie was released just a few months after Jaikishan died. Does anyone have an idea why? The producer of the movie was Bhappi Sonie.
31. The first SJ movie without a Lata song was “Boot Polish.” It was also the only movie of SJ with RK without a Mukesh song!
32. Aarti Mukerjee sang a song for SJ in “Boy Friend” in 1960 and the next SJ song that she sang was in 1974 for “Neelma.”
33. Joy Mukerjee had SJ music only in two movies: “Love in Tokyo” & “Love in Bombay”
34. The first RK Films movie to win a Filmfare Award was ‘Mera Naam Joker,” the last SJ movie of SJ with Raj Kapoor was the hero!
35. Om Prakash, the actor, directed the Raj Kapoor starrer “Kanhaiyya” produced by his brother, Pachhi. Pachhi also produced “Around the World” and “International Crook” in which Om Prakash got to sing songs on screen!
36. SJ had the privilege of composing music for the only complete original color film starring Madhubala, “Jwala.”
37. The first color film for which SJ composed music was “MayurPankh” starring Kishore Sahu.
38. SJ composed music for several films shot on foreign locations and provided music to suit the mood: Sangam, Pyar Mohabat, Naina, Dharti, An Evening in Paris, Love in Tokyo, International Crook, Singapore, Around the World, Saazish…. International Crook was shot in Alaska.
39. SJ composed music for the first 70mm film in India: “Around the World.”
40. “Dream Girl is coming” was what the posters said when “Sapnon Ka Saudagar” was about to release. SJ were amongst those who chose her for the role.
41. The last SJ film to have multiple songs played on Binaca Geetmala was “Sanyasi.”
42. “Krishna Krishna” is the only mythological film for which SJ composed music.
43. Shammi Kapoor heads the list of SJ leading men. Rajendra Kumar comes a distant second. Vyjayanthimala heads the list of SJ leading women.
44. The only Dev Anand song sung by Kishore Kumar for SJ was “Dooriyan Nazdikiyan” in “Duniya.”
45. “Zindagi Ek Safar hai suhana..” from “Andaz” has three voice versions: Kishore Kumar, Asha Bhonsale and Mohd Rafi.
46. Hemant Kumar’s daughter Rano Mukerjee sang a few songs for SJ in the mid seventies in “Saazish,” “Resham Ki Dori,” and “International Crook.” The song that she sang for ”International Crook” was not used in that film but instead found its way in the film, “Eent ka Jawab Patthar.” The song was “Poochha jo pyar kya hai..” with Kishore Kumar.
47. The film “Dur Nahin Manzil” was first assigned to Roshan who died. Later SJ were signed for the same and Jaikishan died during its making. Suman Kalyanpur had sung the title song for Roshan. She also sang for SJ in the film: “Bezuban dil shor na..” The heroine was originally Nutan. She had acted in producer Hari Valia’s earlier venture, “Laatsaab” but due to a misunderstanding with Sanjeev Kumar, she stepped out and was replaced by Bindu’s sister (and Laxmikant’s sister-in-law) Reshma.
48. Mohd Rafi sang two non-film English songs for SJ. They were uploaded on the site earlier.
49. SJ’s first HMV LP Album had a picture of them with their two 1959 White Impala cars with fins and also their Filmfare awards.
50. HMV had released a Lata LP in which all songs were composed by SJ. The songs included: “Bol ri Kathputli..” “Mohabat ki Daastan..” “Jeevan ke do rahe pe khade..”
51. Anuradha Paudwal did a cover version of Lata songs for SJ for T-Series. Later, HMV released a cassette with almost the same original songs.
52. Almost all SJ films were from HMV. SJ’s first movie album to be released for Polydor (now Music India) was “Love in Bombay.” “Archana” was also on Polydor. “Chorni” was with INRECO.
53. There is a Chowk (street junction) called “Shankar Jaikishan Chowk” close to Eros Theatre in Mumbai.
54. Some of the lead dual roles in SJ films: Shararat – Kishore Kumar, An Evening in Paris – Sharmila Tagore, Bhai Bhai – Sunil Dutt, Chhote Sarkar – Shammi Kapoor, Mehfil – Sadhana, Atmaram – Shatrughan Sinha, Yakeen – Dharmendra, Garam Khoon – Vinod Khanna.
55. Some non-Hindi words in SJ songs:
Kali Ghata: Il ya Belle…
Shree 420: Rammaiyya vastavayya…
Singapore: Rasa Sayang re…
Sangam: I love you…
Love in Tokyo: Sayonara…
Pyar Mohabat: Hooray Hooray..
Aman: Puru sato Japan..
Shatranj: Badkamma Ikkad po tora..
Garam Khoon: Penelope…
Eent Ka jawab Patthar: Comment allez vous…
56. SJ may have the highest mukhdas of their songs later converted to movie titles:”Lal Dupatta malmal ka””Raja ki aayegi baraat””Tumse achha kaun hai””Kashmir ki Kali””Aa gale lag jaa””Aan Milo Sajna””Tumko na bhool payenge””Kuch kuch hota hai””Nain mile chain kahan””Aaja Sanam””Aa ab laut chale””Phir bhi dil hai Hindustani””Main Ashiq hoon baharon ka””Mujhe meri biwisi bachao””Kaun hai jo sapnon mein aaya””Bol Radha Bol””Buddha Mil Gaya””Dil ke Jharonke mein””Gustakhi Maaf”
57. Lata Mangeshkar and Jaikishan were both born in 1929. Shankar was elder.
58. MadanMohan, Deven Verma, Satish Wagle were Jaikishan’s very close friends and they met regularly at Gaylord’s near Churchgate, Mumbai. MadanMohan can be seen in key roles in Satish Wagle’s “Pyar Hi Pyar” and “Yaar Mera.”
59. SJ utilized Rafi and Mukesh for all three Kapoor brothers: Raj Kapoor had a Rafi song in “Ek Dil Sau Afsane” & “Mera Naam Joker” Shammi Kapoor had a Mukesh song in “Ujala” and “Singapore” Mukesh sang one song for Shashi Kapoor in “Insaniyat”
60. SJ had Mahendra Kapoor playback for Dev Anand in “Roop Ki Rani CHoron Ka Raja” (Yes, I have the video of the movie. It’s a fact!)
61. Sushama Shreshta was introduced by SJ in “Andaz” and also sang in “Seema” She later sang as Poornima. Ramesh Sippy and Salim-Javed of “Sholay” fame also started with “Andaz.”
62. SJ were signed for the following movies originally: “Bobby,” “Seeta Aur Geeta” I remember clearly having seen ads to that effect in Screen. Unfortunately, I did not save those issues.
63. Guru Dutt had one only movie as a lead actor with SJ: “Sanjh aur Savera” But his younger brother had a close relationship with SJ: Shikar, Chanda aur Bijli, Umang, Yaar Mera and Resham Ki Dori.
64. Besides Dattaram and Sebastian, SJ also had other assistants like Sonny Castellino (Awara), Dheeraj (Sanyasi), Enoch Daniels (Kaanch Ki Deewar, Gori, Krishna Krishna
65. SJ composed background music for a documentary at the peak of their career in 1967. The docmentary was “Everest” and narrated the expedition by Nawang Gombu’s team. Incidentally, this team included Dr Telang as a team doctor.
66. Shatrughan Sinha sang “Mera Joota hai japani” at a function in 1972 under Shankar’s supervision.
67. Sudha Malhotra sang the “Chori Chori” duets with Manna Dey during the 1957 function for 1956 FF awards.
68. Shankar composed Indian classical tunes for AIR Delhi in the late seventies.
69. Shankar liked Hitchcock film music.
70. Shankar was a master at playing several instruments. He could play the piano, the harmonium, the sitar, and the pakhawaj with ease. Born in Punjab, he migrated to Andhra Pradesh at a very young age. He had been a dancer in Krishna Kutty’s troupe.
71. Jaikishan was a master harmonium-player.
72. Shankar-Jaikishan approached Raj Kapoor, who was on a lookout out for new composer for Barsaat. Kapoor had noticed them as musicians earlier.
73. Coming to their working style, the duo mostly composed the tune first, since they felt it prevented monotony, as poets tended to write songs most of the time to just two or three metres.
74. Lyricists Shailendra and Hasrat Jaipuri were masters at writing in-depth lyrics to S-J’s tunes, and the composers worked with them mostly. For a couple of films they worked with lyricist Rajinder Krishan. Most of the time Jaikishan tuned with Hasrat, and Shankar with Shailendra.
75. Shankar-Jaikishan were on the RK Films pay-roll even when another composer did an occasional film.
76. They were awarded the Padmashri in 1969.
77. As S-J, they did 121 films, and later Shankar did about 30 films more.
78. The duo released a non-film record, Raga Jazz Time in the 60s and composed Hindi songs and the background score for the English film Bombay Talkie (1971).
79. Their music boosted the careers of Raj Kapoor, Nargis and Rajendra Kumar, and gave the ‘Yahoo’ image to Shammi Kapoor.
80. Through their songs popularized instruments like the violin (‘Jaane kahan gaye who din…’ – Mera Naam Joker), the piano (‘Dost dost na raha…’ – Sangam, ‘Dil ke jharaonkhe mein…’ – Brahmachari) and the accordion (‘Awara hoon…’ -Awara).
81. Way back in 1965, S-J charged a record-breaking rupees five lakhs making them the highest-paid music directors ever.
Shri Suresh Thakur, a SJ fan and visitor has drawn attention to few factual errors which are as under :
(quote) A small correction , you have mentioned songs O shama mujhe pook de as from Hariyali aur rasta and O sanam tere ho gaye hum as from Ashiq, the first one is from Ashiq and the second one is from Ayi Milan ki Bela .(unquote)
Ask who is Sebastian D’Souza and you may get as many answers as the number of people who venture to give it. Footballer ?,Electrician ? School teacher ? Fr.. Sebastian??
anything but music arranger.
Sebastian D’Souza is easily the most prolific arranger in all of Indian film music. Spanning a career from 1952 – 1974 much of it with the famed duo of Shankar Jaikishan Sebastian created scores for over 125 films and over 1000 songs.. No musical arranger of popular American music let alone Hollywood films of that period can match his output. Sebastian should have been in the Guiness book of secords.Instead a search on google hardly throws up his name.
Volume of output apart, for sheer imagination and variety of orchestrated music Sebastian stands head and shoulders above them all. Sebastian had an imagination not equaled by the same men on whom books have been written and whose names occupied the marquee in the same period Sebastian’s development of harmonic concepts extended across a wide range of Indian, Latin and western instruments to create a unique effect.
While Anthony Gonsalves started that trend, Sebastian carried it on enlarging and embellishing the concept He is largely responsible for changing the entire harmonic structure of the hindi film song to create an extremely listenable full body of sound behind the voice of the singer .And hence a major influence on that era. If you thrill in the songs of that period from ‘Aawara’, ‘Boot Polish’, ‘Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai’, ‘Sangam’,,’Mera Naam Joker’ all from the RK banner and want to hear them over and over again it is invariably because Sebastian was the hidden hand behind their creation.
It is said that Mukesh who playbacked Raj Kapoor had Sebastian select the instruments, provide the counterpoint in Shankar Jaikishan’s melodic structure and create the music behind the star crossed lover portrayed by Raj Kapoor Together with him and his rhythmic partner Dattaram the SJ duo created history. Raj it is said, was close to Sebastian and was present in every recording because Raj believed that what Sebastian did was key to his role. Take away that background music from the RK films and you will plunge into a huge void. Till the late 40s, background music to the singers voice was merely a narrow range of instruments playing the same tune as sung by the singer.There was no concept of counters, fills or cadences. Rhythms employed were very limited. The effect was sonorous. Beginning the 50s, Anthony and Sebastian changed that all.
And how did that happen? Brought up on a staple diet of operas and symphonies of Mozart, Schubert, Haydn,Tchaikovsky which he absorbed, Sebastian employed harmonic variation with telling effect on to hindi film music. Sebastian came to Bombay in search of work from across the border post 1947 and stumbled into hindi films. Before that he was a big band leader in hotels from Allahabad to Mussorie to Lahore where he earned a name for leading the most popular orchestra of that time at the Stiffles hotel.
Starting as a violinist he moved up rapidly. O P Nayyar gave him his break as an arranger with C H Atma’s “Pritam Aan me lo” and later in the film ‘Aasman’. With O P he forged a super relationship and what followed is still on many lips ;the songs and the music from ‘Aar Paar’ ( Sun sun sun sun jalim’), Mr & Mrs 55’( Udhar tum hasin ho idhar dil jawa hai’), Howrah Bridge (‘ Mera naam chin chin choo,chin chin choo’) and so many more….each a classic not equaled fifty years after their time. Creativity such as this is genius and geniuses are sometimes known to be irregular, erratic and difficult with time being their first victim. Not so with Sebastian who was known to be regular, consistent, methodical and disciplined. With strong writing skills, he invariably created and translated what was going in his head into written scores on the spot in the studio for the orchestral sections and the soloists and adjusted them while rehearsing. Usually, one song took a day .But it is said that on one occasion Sebastian
created 5 songs in a day traveling to different studios across the city .
But these are just snippets. Take another glance at his history sheet .Consider these; ‘Aaja sanam, madhur chandni mein hum’;,’Yeh raat bheegi bheegi’ from Chori Chori. ‘Teri yaad dil se bulane chale hum’ from ‘Hariyali aur Rasta’. ‘Dost dost na raha’ from ‘Sangam’, ‘Aae malik there bande hum’ from ‘Do Aankhen Bara Haath’, Aaja re.. pardesi’ from Madhumati.’Aansoo bahri hain yeh jeevan ki raahen’
From N Dutta’s Chandni ki Deewar’ listen closely to Talat’s song ‘Ashkon ne jo paya hai’. The violins play in three sections, embellished by a vibraphone and cellos behind Talat’s voice. The sadness of the lyric is captured in one of the most poignant violin solos in the annals of hindi film music.
It is said that Jaikishan was so taken up with Sebastian’s counters and fills he put together all of those and hey presto he had created a brand new song. Sebastian worked tirelessly till 1974. The advent of Bhappi Lahiri and styles of that kind did not call for his skills. A self effacing man who spoke less and did more, he quietly retired to Goa and began a new life teaching children, away from the stars and the greats whom he had helped create .Little did the children whom he taught quietly, know that they had the wisdom and experience of an all time great. Shocked they were, when journalists, musicians and aficionados of the music world would descend on Sebastian’ s modest home to sit at the feet of the man and reminisce. As the children grew up they were amazed that he was the same person behind all those wonderful songs. When he died, he instructed that no money be spent on his funeral and all that was saved should go to charity; such is the modesty of greats. Sebastian left behind a rich musical legacy which will live into generations after his time. As so often happens to modest, silent and quiet achievers in India, he received no honours from the city of Bombay where he lived created and worked but a belated awardfrom his home state of Goa
“The other musical duos responsible for promoting my singing career were Shankar and Jaikishan. I am especially indebted to Shanker-ji, for had it not been for his patronage, I would certainly not have attained the heights of success I enjoyed in my career. Here was one man who knew how to bring out the best in me. No other music director, not even Sachin-da, for that matter, took the trouble to do that. Was it because, unlike Shanker-ji, they were unaware of my potential? Is it not a question I am qualified to answer. Sachin-da, for instance, had asked me to sing ‘Upar gagan vishal’ because he wanted to resurrect my uncle’s style of singing through me. Moreover, despite giving my best to his songs, and even after I had made my mark as a playback singer, Sachin –da did not ask me to sing on a regular basis for the films whose music he composed. Shanker-ji, however, was different. He had a clear conception of the range of my voice and began composing some of my popular numbers to exploit it fully. In fact, he was the first music director who dared to experiment with my voice by making me sing romantic numbers. Somehow, he sensed that my masculine style of rendering style of rendering love songs would appeal to the public. And he was not wide of the mark. I, for my part, was always happy to sing for Shanker-ji because of the sheer variety of his tunes. The compositions he especially reserved for me included everything that could be described as light music – as opposed to classical – compromising romantic numbers, wistful songs of farewell, comic songs and devotionals. The precedent set by Shanker-ji would be instrumental in furthering my career with other music directors who, inspired by his success, eagerly came forward with a wide range of compositions for me to sing. Today, I look back on that phase of my singing career as my golden period and if my fans call me a versatile singer, it is entirely due to Shanker-ji’s astute judgement of my capabilities and his initiative in bringing them to the fore.
This duo’s other important contribution to my career lay in their decision to use my voice for songs lip-synched by younger characters in films, a marked departure from the general trend of making me sing playback for older actors. Until then, I had, been accustomed to lending my voice for songs composed either for the character of Valmiki, the old sage of Ramayana, or the actor who played Hanuman and was required to jump around, swinging his long tail. In fact I often found the prospect of going to a theatre hall and watching such characters a trifle awkward, particularly when they lip-synched my voice. Besides, telling friends that I had, indeed sung for Valmiki or Hanuman was embarrassing enough. With Shankar and Jaikishen giving me a different kind of break, however, the situation changed completely. Now, I could proudly tell my friends that the leading character of such and such film would be lip-synching my song. These developments naturally gave my self-confidence a tremendous boost.
As far as I can remember, my very first song composed by Shanker and Jaikishen was for Awara, a film produced and directed by the legendary Raj Kapoor. The duet with Lata Mangeshkar, ‘Tere bina aag yeh chandni’, written by the famous lyricist Shailendra, would mark the beginning of my golden period in playback singing. Then followed, one smash hit after another; ‘Lapak jhapak tu aare badarwa’ in Boot Polish, ‘Dil ka haal sune dilwale’ in Shri 420, ‘Yeh raat bheegi bheegi’ in Chori Chori and ‘Jhoomta mausam’ in Ujaala.
The most interesting feature of Shanker and Jaikishen’s medodies was their sheer novelty and, in that respect, they remain unrivalled. The man on the street enjoyed singing them for fun and their appeal has survived the passage of time. Their commitment to their work was truly commendable and considering their taste and flair for innovation, which they introduced to suit a song’s mood and lyrics, along with the kind of effort that went into their compositions, it is hardly surprising that they should have produced such memorable hits.
It was Shanker and Jaikishen’s last composition for me, ‘Sur na saje’ from Basant Bahar, which would bring the most productive period of my career with them to a glorious close.”
I thought for those of us in the group who have not read the book, it will be of great help. In the book, Manna Dey starts with SDB among the MDs and then comes to SJ. It may be remembered that he started as an assistant to SDB and got his break also from SDB. But having read the above one can understand where he places SJ among the MDs he had worked with.
However, I did not understand how he has written that ‘Sur na saje’ was the last composition with SJ.
In the passing away of Shanker, the country has lost one of its foremost musical craftsmen, laments NALIN SHAH.
Music director Shanker burst upon the musical firmament like a meteor with the release of “Barasat” in 1949.When he suddenly died on April 26,1987 his failure and frustrations of the last 15 years were forgotten. What remained was the fond memories of 22 years of total domination over the music world by Shanker together with his partner Jaikishan.
Shanker Singh Raghuvanshi in real life, Shanker was an expert percussionist from Hyderabad who learned the rudiments of film music from the first composer duo Hus- nalal-Bhagatram.
When Raj Kapoor heard Shanker sing one of his compositions ‘Ambuva ka ped hai, wohi munder hai, Aaja mere balamua, ab kahe ki der hai’ he detected a spark of genius in this young man of 26 and signed him for’ Barsaat’.. Shanker introduced Jaikishan (from Gujarat) as his musical partner Poet Hasrat Jaipuri who had slogged for six years as a BEST bus conductor in Bombay joined hands to pen his first lyrics’ Jiya beqarar hai, Chhai bahar hai ‘cast in the ‘Ambuva ka Ped hai’ mould. Later poet Shailendra joined the team and with that started a new era in film music.
Till death did them apart Hasrat and Shailendra became an indispensable part of Shanker and Jaikishan. Once during the making of’College Girl'(1 960) Shanker Jaikishan submitted to the producer’s demand that they have Rajendra Krishna as a lyricist. Hasrat and Shailendra retaliated by refusing to work with S-J again. The latter admitted their mistake and made amends by refusing producer B R Chopra’s film only because he insisted on having Sahir, and not Hasrat Shailendra, to pen the lyrics.
Shanker and Jaikishan composed independently and never interfered in each other’s work but divided their remuneration equally irrespective of the number of songs composed by each of them. Hasrat wrote mostly for Jaikishan and Shailendra for Shanker.
In the matter of orchestration the duo took the cue from Naushad who had remained their model. As a result under the expert supervision of the Goan musician Sebastian the duo’s orchestral arrangements made their compositions sound more breezy and melodious. Consequently even the creative score of Naushad’s ‘Andaz’ was relegated to second place, after the ‘Barsaat’ melodies in terms of popular appeal.
By the early ’50s, Shanker Jai- kishan became undisputed masters of all they surveyed with a chain of musical hits such as ‘Nagina’, ‘Awa- ara’, ‘Badal’, ‘Daagh’, ‘Aah’ and’ Patita’.
While background music was Jaikishan’s forte, Shanker had an edge over him in song compositions. Shanker stands out as versatile compose when we hear the heartrending cry of a ]over in ‘Yaad aai hai’ (Lata -‘Nagina’) and ‘Tere bina aag chandani’ (Lata -‘Awaara’) or soulful melodies in’Koi nahin mera is duniya mein’ (Talat -‘Daagh’) and’ Yeh mera diwanapan hai’ (Mukesh ‘Yehudi’) or light and frivolous numbers such as’Ek do teen aaja mausam hai rangeen’ (Shamshad & chorus -‘Awaara’) and’Lal Chhadi maidan khadi’ (Rafi ‘Janwar’).
Shanker’s super ability as a composer is evident from the fact that he scored the entire ‘Kali Ghar ‘(except’ Chhum chhananan chhum’) 1953 and’Shri 420′(except ‘Sham gai raat aai’) 1955.’Basant Bahar'(1956), which was originally to be scored by Anil Biswas, came to Shanker instead. It was a god sent opportunity. Shanker exhibited his expertise in classical music with his compositions of the ‘Basant Bahar ‘songs (except ‘Main piya teri’ and ‘Bhaya bhajana’). ‘Amrapali (1966), though a box– office failure, was remarkable for Shanker’s classical compositions (except ‘Neel gagan chhaon men’).
CRUDE & UNCOUTH
In sharp contrast to Shanker as a musical craftsman, he was cr- ude and uncouth as a man. His lack of education was pronounced by his foul temper and a bad ton gue. He took morbid pleasure in mocking chillana … yeh gaana haina baajanaa ‘in ‘Love Marriage’ (1959).
Nor did he hesitate to ridicule Naushad for accepting the Lata Mangeshkar award (being senior to her in the profession). Similarly Shanker sought to satisfy his inflated ego by ‘winning’ awards for music. Shanker, by his own admission, tried every questionable means to prove his superiority over Jaikishan and the otehr contemporary music directors. Shanker is known to have cornered thousands of ‘Filrnfare’coupons to get awards for the duo’s mediocre score in’Dil Apna Aur Preet Paraye’against Naushad’s acclaimed masterpiece in ‘Mughal-e-Azam’.
Jaikishan, on the other hand was soft spoken, suave and polished in his behaviour. Producers, including Raj Kapoor, preferred to deal with Jaikishan rather than Shanker.
For the first time in many years Shanker Jaikishan felt their position threatened with the rise of 0 P Nayyar and Laxmikant Pyarelal Laxmikant Pyarelal. Their togetherness was prompted more by business comp- ulsion rather than a sense of team spirit.
The rift between Shanker and Jaikishan widened with the entry of singer Sharda in their camp. In spite of the popularity of Sharda’s ‘Titli udi (‘Suraj’1966) and Shanker’s per- suasion, Jaikishan refused to accept Sharda as a singer. As Sharda drew closer to Shanker the duo drew farther apart. Their differences could not be reconciled – this continued upto the death of Jaikishan in 1971.
In spite of his versatility and dexterity as a composer Shanker was never his old self again. With the death of Shailendra and Jaikishan something-vital had gone one out of his life. The edge of creativity had blunted. In the remaining 15 years ‘Sanyasi'(1975) was the only significant film he sco- red. Producers found it difficult to deal with him and sodid Lata .The name “ShanKer Jaikishan’ had lost most was the fact that even Raj Kapoor had deserted him. There was a flicker of hope that after ‘Bobby’ Shanker would enter the Raj Kapoor camp again to do ‘Param Veer Chakra’. But the film was shelved. After turning to Laxmikant-Pyarelal when Raj Kapoor turned to Ravindra jain, Shanker could not hide his bitterness. After all, Raj Kapoor and Shanker-Jaikishan had grown together. But even in frustration he remained defiant.
A month before his death when I met him in his empty recording room he reminded me of a tiger who was caged but not vanquished. He moved his fingers expertly on the piano keyboard and proudly recalled the days when Shanker-Jaikishan reigned supreme. He talked enthusiastically about his excellent health and his athletic background. He was looking forward to his forth coming musical tour of America. He was still confident of recreating the old glory some day.
That ‘some day’ was a dream that did not come true. On the fateful nightof April 26, 1987, Shanker, who had enthralled millions by his music, suddenly died. Early in the morning, the following day, when unsuspecting music lovers were probably humming melodious tunes composed by him. Shanker’s mortal remains were being consigned to flame in the presence of a handful of neighbours and relatives. Shanker’s close friend announcer Kishan Sharma, who was scheduled to meet Shanker in the evening checked his day’s enga- gements. Raj Kapoor and Hasrat Jaipuri were totally unaware of the shock that awaited them later in the day, Shanker’s close confidante Sharda impatiently waited for Shanker in the ‘Famous’ recording room for the recording of a song. It turned out to be an endless wait.