Rajiv Vijayakar

A neat fifty-plus of the 60-odd songs that Shankar- Jaikishan composed for Shammi Kapoor have proved enduring hits. Jaikishan’s deep bond of friendship with the actor translated into the extra-special rapport reflected in their ‘track’-record. On Jaikishan’s 36th death anniversary on September 12, the actor goes down memory lane…

am asked whether I had a better tuning to Jaikishan than to Shankar. Yes, I did, but only because Jai and I were of the same age – Shankarji was older to me. I knew both of them since 1948 when they were musicians with Prithvi Theatres and I would work there as an actor. Then Barsaat happened and they began to go places. I kept working in Prithvi till 1952 and then had my famous phase of multiple debacles as a film actor till 1958 and Tumsa Nahin Dekha happened. By that time, S-J were big. But on a personal level, we had always remained friends, and Jai and I kept meeting and partying together.

“My first two hits, Tumsa Nahin Dekha and Dil Deke Dekho, happened respectively with O.P.Nayyar and Usha Khanna, both of whom gave me super-hit music – with my inputs of course. So it was a while before S-J and I came together professionally – our first film was Ujala and my voices were Mukesh and Manna Dey. We did have some good songs in the film, like Manna Dey’s ‘Jhoomta mausam mast mahina’. This was followed by Singapore, where for the first time Mohammed Rafi came in for me under their baton.

“But it was with Junglee that we struck gold as a team. I had used the term ‘Yahoo’ in my lines in Tumsa Nahin Dekha and gave the term to Jai when he was working on ‘Chahe koi mujhe junglee kahe’. He incorporated the expression in musical form. It was destiny, I suppose, that when the Internet came into India and Yahoo soon became a household word, I was to be one of the earliest users of the ‘Net in India. But that’s by the way.

“Jaikishan was simply an amazing composer. He was very open to inputs and loved to fuse Western music with his classical roots. If he was great at all those rhythmic numbers, he could churn out the soulful ‘Ehsaan tera hoga mujh par’ equally effortlessly. And at this point I must say that Shankarji was no less a genius. I remember I was in his music room – they always had separate offices and did complete songs individually even before they split, except for Raj Kapoor’s movies – when he started fingering the keys of his harmonium and came up right in front of me with ‘Aiyiyya karoon main kya’ for the same film, with the expression ‘Suku suku’ that he had devised as a starting-point!

“Jai was in the habit of calling me after shoots to Bombelli’s restaurant at Mumbai’s Churchgate. It was there that he would present the tunes, usually musically or with dummy lyrics, and I would ‘book’ them. He would actually hum or sing them out to me right there in the eatery, and most of them were fabulous compositions and went on to become instant and enduring hits.

“Of course with my love and vast exposure to Western music of all kinds, I would give him inputs. But he never copied what I gave him – he would work out a fresh melody around them, improvise and sometimes even turn the originals on their heads. Whether it was Jai or anyone else, I was always involved from day one in my music. I would discuss with the director and writer why a song had to be placed where they wanted it, what kind of song it should be and finally have a decisive say in the selection. Of course I never looked beyond Rafi, and the only reason why Rafi wasn’t there for me in Ujala was because after my initial success I was trying to navigate my career and S-J were then equally partial to Rafi, Mukesh and Manna Dey. Mannada later sang for me in specific songs for Jai’s Pagla Kahin Ka(‘Mere bhains ko danda kyoon maara’), Professor and Jaane Anjaane. That apart, it was Rafi all the way.

“I remember taking Jai to Singapore for the shooting of the film of that name – we travelled a lot together because I would drag him along to Beirut, Paris and so many places! We were watching a cabaret show with Malaysian words in the song. Jai asked a waiter for a napkin and pen and began writing down notations, resulting in the hit song ‘Rasa saying sayang’ in the film. Jai was very quick – and once again, he had improvised a lot on the original.

“When he passed away, I was affected personally rather than professionally, because by that time my career as a hero was over. I remember my father (Prithviraj Kapoor), who considered him like a son, was very sick with cancer at a hospital on Mumbai’s Marine Drive. Jai’s funeral passed the building and somehow the family prevented my father from coming to the window by diverting his attention. Of course, he came to know of Jai’s death before he died, and my father actually wept for him.

“I met Jai for the last time on September 11 – he was in hospital for weeks. When I took his leave, I said, ‘Okay, Jai, see you tomorrow.’ He just kept looking at me and to date I have never forgotten that look.

“A very likeable and outgoing man, Jaikishan never spoke ill about anyone. Always immersed in music, he celebrated life. I remember I threw a party for him at my home when he got married, and he reciprocated when I married Neela.

“Once I was shooting in the mid-town Roop Tara Studios when he told me to come quickly to his music room. When I told him that I could not, he drove down all the way, called me out to his car and made me listen to what eventually became ‘Tum mujhe yoon bhula na paaoge’ (Pagla Kahin Ka) and ‘Jab mohabbat jawaan hoti hai’ from Jawan Mohabbat. I would often go to his Gobind Mahal sitting room and sit with him and the musicians Dattaram and Sebastian. Which brings me to two amusing incidents.

“As friends, we would often argue and fight, but the one time I really clashed with him and almost hit him was when he refused to yield to my request to take back his masterpiece ‘Teri pyari pyari soorat ko’ from L.V.Prasad’s Sasural and allow me to use it! Of course I had to give in, but I was lucky another time.

“And that , incidentally, was the only time I saw him seriously upset and on the verge of tears! He came to me once and wanted me to listen to the recorded Rafi-Suman Kalyanpur duet ‘Aaj kal tere mere pyar ke charche’. The song was recorded for another hero’s film and had been approved by the film’s team. But the hero was not in town and when he came back, he rejected the song because it did not ‘suit his persona’! Manmohan Desai was directing me in Budtameez and I took the song to him, but he did not care much for it. I played it out to Ramesh Sippy and Bhappi Sonie with whom I was making Brahmchari and it became one of the topmost chartbusters from that film!

“Among our films together there were two that did not reach the musical level of the rest – Budtameez and Chhote Sarkar. It’s not that Budtameez was not up to the mark – there were a couple of decent songs in the film. But the film was delayed in production and to a certain extent we all had lost interest in the film. As for Chhote Sarkar, it came at the fag end of my career as a hero. My knees had given way, I had put on a lot of weight, and Jai was completely down and had fallen victim to the fatal combination of alcohol and bad company.

“Why did Jai go downhill? Yes, the split with his partner did affect him, but not all that much because as we all know they were always used to working separately. What affected him was the lack of good work. Many of his banners had left him, mostly for Laxmikant-Pyarelal, but also for Kalyanji-Anandji, S.D.Burman, R.D.Burman and others. And he had cultivated a lot of hangers-on who had influenced him to start drinking all day long.

“What else can I say about my friend? He was very quick at background music, and his background music pieces were so good that he often made great songs from them, like ‘O basanti’ from Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai owing its existence to a music piece in Awara. His Gujarati leanings made him always pronounce the word snacks as ‘snakes’, and I have this feeling that he would do it deliberately! A quirk he had was of balancing his glass of liquor on the ankle of the folded leg as he sat! Incredibly we would all keep watching the glass and it would never fall!

“So many other composers gave me fantastic songs – O.P.Nayyar, Usha Khanna, Kalyanji-Anandji, Roshan, R.D.Burman and even Ravi. But Shankar-Jaikishan were truly amazing, and I miss Jai a lot!’



संगीत की दुनियाँ के बेताज बादशाह शंकर-जयकिशन से नयी पीढी और दुनियाँ के लोगों को फिर से परिचित कराने या / और उन्हें फिर से याद दिलाने का एक छोटा सा प्रयास


Jaikishen's statue at Bansda (Courtesy-PRO Bollywood)
Jaikishen's statue at Bansda (Courtesy-PRO Bollywood)Jaikishen, Shanker, Indiraji, Rajkapoor (frontline) Standing behind are (L to R) I S Johar, Agha, Mehmood & C Ramchandra
Jaikishen-Shanker with Late Prime Minister of India Smt. Indira Gandhi, Raj Kapoor, standing behind are I S Johar, Agha,  Mehmood and C. Ramchandra
Jaikishen-Shanker with Late Prime Minister of India Smt. Indira Gandhi, Raj Kapoor, standing behind are I S Johar, Agha, Mehmood and C. Ramchandra
Dear Friends,

As it was earlier announced on this blog, a grand statue of our beloved Jaikishen of Shanker-Jaikishen was unveiled with grand fun-fare and enthusiasm at his birth place Bansda (Gujarat). Few members of Yahoo Group on Shankarjaikishan also attended the event. Here is a report by one of its members Mr. Kamal Mustafa Sikander which is reproduced below as it is posted on his blog

Jaane wale kabhi nahi aate… remember this Mohd. Rafi song from Dil Ek Mandir composed by Shankar Jaikishen? You will agree that there could not have been any other song at the unveiling ceremony of Jaikishen’s statue in Bansda. A bronze statue of legendary music director (composer) Jaikishen (of Shankar-Jaikishen fame) was unveiled by veteran music composer Anandjibhai (Kalyanji-Anandji fame) in the presence of Swami Sachidanandji at Bansda (Vansda) in Navsari District of South Gujarat where Jaikishen was born on 4th November, 1929.

Apart from Swamiji & Anandjibhai, the event was attended by many prominent people from the region. Anandjibhai was accompanied by his wife Kantaben. Anandjibhai amused the audience in his patent funny style. When the compere said it was fine if Anandji decided to speak while sitting on his chair, he said that due to his height, it doesn’t make a difference whether he was sitting or standing.

The statue is an initiative by Swami Sachidanand of Gujarat who is a great fan of the legendary composer duo Shankar Jaikishen. Speaking at the event, he said that when he was going through depression, it was only by listening to melodious songs composed by Shankar Jaikishen that he was able to come out of it. When he went abroad, he saw statues of many famous foreign musicians there. He got a desire to make statues of famous musicians of India and decided to make a beginning with the statue of Jaikishen at his native place Bansda as he made the entire Gujarat proud by his achievements. He hoped that this would be just a beginning and people from all over India will make efforts to keep memories alive of legendary artistes. He said he is a great fan of Shankar Jaikishen and their contemporaries whose music is remembered till date and is referred to as the golden period of Hindi film music. He said music united people and also spoke about the famous Bhajan ‘Man Tadpat Hari Darshan’ which is composed, sung & written all by devout Muslims. He said many of Naushad’s songs contained words like ‘Rama’ and these are some of the best examples of communal harmony that can be seen anywhere. He urged people to take a lesson from these legendary artistes who devoted their life for spreading the message of love and brotherhood through their melodious music. He came to know more about Shankar Jaikishan after reading Gujarati biography by Dr. Padmanabh Joshi of Ahmedabad. Swamiji also remembered many of Shankar Jaikishen’s contemporaries like Mehboob Khan who also hailed from neighbouring town of Billimora, Shaqeel Badayuni, Naushad, among others.

A few members of the Shankar Jaikishen Yahoo Group led by founder and moderator Sandeep Apte also participated in the unveiling ceremony on behalf of the group. The name of the group was duly announced by Rajnibhai Pandya. The Yahoo! group is highly excited about this event and this topic is one of the highly discussed topic in recent times. A few members felt that Jaikishen is incomplete without Shankar and the statue should be of both Shankar & Jaikishen. On the other side, many in the group also agreed that the town was paying homage to the artiste who made them all proud. Anyway, Shankar was duly remembered and paid homage at the event by all the eminent speakers. The Yahoo! group has more than 500 members from all over the world, many of whom are like living encyclopaedia on the composer duo.

A message in a poem form from singer Sharda was read by famous writer Rajnibhai Pandya. Rajnibhai also said that he received many emails/SMS from his readers that Shankar should also be remembered at this event and he duly conveyed the wish of music lovers to the organisers. He said the august audience consists of some notable names who have done lot of things to keep memories of yesteryear musicians alive. A prominent name was of collector Harish Raghuvanshi. All the gentlemen were honoured on the dais. Many eminent speakers requested the people of Bansda to make sure that the statue is kept in a well maintained pristine condition.

A feast was organised for the entire town of Bansda and everyone who attended the event. The veg. food served was very tasty. Everyone, including yours truly, relished the tasty pakodas, Surti undhiya, puris, daal-rice and butter-milk. The event was also covered by E-TV, Chitralekha (Gujarati magazine), Rajasthan Patrika, among others. It was a very well organised event and it seems the organisers’ wanted to convey : ‘Tum Bansda Ko Yu Bhula Na Paoge’

Qamaal Mustafa Sikander

Music lover & Editor News Blog



A Close-up of the Statue of Jaikishen (Courtesy-KMSikander)
A Close-up of the Statue of Jaikishen (Courtesy-KMSikander)A glimpse of the audience at the statue unveiling function_Courtesy-KMSikander

Anandji bhai of the Great Kalyanji-Anandji duo inaugurates the statue by pushing button on this remote (Courtesy : KMSikander)
Anandji bhai of the Great Kalyanji-Anandji duo inaugurates the statue by pushing button on this remote (Courtesy : KMSikander)
Anandjibhai addressing the audience at the venue of the event
Anandjibhai addressing the audience at the venue of the eventSwamiji and other distinguished guests listening to Anandjibhai
(all photographs by Courtesy : KM Sikander)
Swami Satchidanand Maharaj - The conceiver, initiator and source of encouragement towards installing statue of Jaikishen
Swami Satchidanand Maharaj - The conceiver, initiator and source of encouragement towards installing statue of JaikishenDr. Padmanabh K. Joshi expert in S-J matter, writer of the Biography of SJ
Maharaja of Bansda (with Anandjibhai and other eminent guests)
Maharaja of Bansda (with Anandjibhai and other eminent guests)
Owner of Bardoli Sugar factory who wholeheartedly contributed for the cause. (We the fans of Shanker-Jaikishen will be ever grateful to him  for his Generosicy)
Owner of Bardoli Sugar factory who wholeheartedly contributed for the cause. (We the fans of Shanker-Jaikishen will be ever grateful to him for his Generosicy)
Famouor writers Dr. Padmanabh Joshi & Shri Rajnikumar Pandya ji (both are well-researched on Shankar-Jaikishan)at the function
Famouor writers Dr. Padmanabh Joshi & Shri Rajnikumar Pandya ji (both are well-researched on Shankar-Jaikishan)at the function
Jaikishen's sister was also felicitated on the occasion
Jaikishen's sister was also felicitated on the occasion

कुछ और भी फोटो हैं जिन्हें आप सीधे कमाल साहब के साईट पर जा कर देख सकते हैं

The shankarjaikishen group on Yahoo was represented by the members whose photographs are as under:

Anandji Bhai with wife & members of Yahoo Group (Qamaal Mustafa Sikander & Sandeep Apte sitting, Devendra Shastri & Prashant Menon standing)
Anandji Bhai with wife & members of Yahoo Group (Qamaal Mustafa Sikander & Sandeep Apte sitting, Devendra Shastri & Prashant Menon standing)

My sincere thanks to all the members who made us the story and photographs available to fans of SHANKER-JAIKISHEN




  2. Dear Chandrasekhar ji,

    is the link by clicking on and following the instruction of the page you can be a member of the group on Shankar jaikishan. For quick moderating I am sending your request to the moderators so that they can clear it urgently. Please come with your introductory post (mail) addressing the group members. For full guidance I am sending the step by step detail to your personal mail box.

    Sudarshan Pandey/Kolkata


  3. Thanks for the article on SJ. Having lived through their heydays, I miss their music a lot. With the combinations of Shammi Kapoor and Rafi Sahaab, we get transported to another world. Such was their music. Sheer energy, melody, and even innocent mischievousness were their hallmark.

    There are however some exceptions that I would like to point out by which I mean that I could never guess that SJ would create music of that kind. I am referring to Basant Bahar and Amrapali. Such classic compositions.


    1. Dear Nasir Bhai,

      Thanks for visiting the blog and giving your comments. I would like to invite you to shankarjaikishan group on yahoo. Like minded people who are
      SJ fans share their views / information / articles there. Would be glad to have you there.


  4. Sankar Jaikishan yeh naam sunte hi lagta hai jaise koi kaan main amrit daal diya. aur unka music direction main bana geet to anmol hai.unki gane wah kya kehena.unke bina hum jaise kangal ho geye. yese yese gane woh humen diye hain aaj tak hum gunguna rahe hain. PYAR HUA IKRAR HUA, BOLRI KATHAPUTLI BOLI, AB KAHAN JAYEN HUM YEH JAHAN CHOD KE, GORI CHALONA HANS KI CHAL JAMANA DUSHMAN HAI, TAQDEER KAHAN LE JAYEGI MALOOM NAHIN,TERI PYARI PYARI SURAT KO,YEH MERA PREM PATRA PADHAKAR,MAIN KAHIN KABI NA BANJAUN,HUMKO TO JAAN SE PYARI HAI TUMHARI ANKHE, JANAM JANAM SAATH HAI NIVANE KO,TUM MUJHE YUN BHULANA PAOGE, HASEEN HO TUM KHUDA NAHIN HO,MAIN CHALI MAIN CHALI,AAJ KAL MAIN DHAL GEYA, KAAMDEV JAISI TERI SURATIYAN,TERA MERA PYAR AMAR,HAR DIL JO PYAR KAREGA WOH GANA GAYEGA,MUJHKO APNE GALE LAGALO YE MERE HUMRAHI,AA GALE LAG JA MERE SAPNE MERE APNE, AJIB DASTAN HAIN YE, KHO GEYA HAI MERA PYAR, PAISEKI PEHECHAN YAHAN,GEET GATA HUN MAIN, aur kai gane bhulaya nahin jayega, Bhagwan jaikishanji ko itni jaldi bulake achha nahin kiya aur kitne geet sunneke liye milte unke bina Sankarji bhi akela padgeye aur woh bhi chal diye. hum sub sunnewalon ko aanath karke.


  5. Dear all,

    I do not know hindi but even to-day i stand riveted whenever i listen to songs from 50’s and 60’s SJ they are gift of god to us and some say that it is because of Rafi they got catapulted to such a height and i strongly disagree for rafi faded with the passing away of jaikishen and shankar’s slow disappearance from the scene and in short they were like master cooks and the dish they prepared was nicely and elegantly served by the singers which is also a very important aspect in any function.



  6. such an interesting article by shammiji. has he written for shankar also?can i read it somewhere.

    they say in english “two heads are better than one” that is why after jai’s death the music of sj went down completely. so sad. who was a better composer? shanker or jai?


    1. Dear Rishi ji,
      Shammi Kapoor and Jaikishen were of same age and there was a great rappo in between them. Shankerji being elder Shammi Kapoor always maintained a distance as a mark of respect….Remember Jaikishen not even disclosed as to which song was of him or Shankerji….so Shammi Kapoor’s statment may please be taken as for both of SJ. Both of them were complete and full fledged composers that is why it is difficult and would be injustice to say that Shankerji was the better composer or Jaikishan ji was only the better composer. Whatever stuff you have enjoyed is and was from a package called SJ……


      1. Dear shankerjai,
        But in shammiji’s article he has clearly mentioned that jai used to make him listen to his tunes,that means shammiji knew which were jai’s songs and which were shankar’s songs.Right?
        Also I can’t understand why people say that “zindagi ek safar” was jai’s song.Is it done by the media or these are facts.
        Honestly I used to love sj’s music but after RK films stopped signing SJ I lost interest in them,and also Shammiji had retired as hero so I lost complete interest in their music.My last film I saw Shammi as hero was Preetam and I liked the song “hay dil laga aisa laga”.I believe it must be shankar’s song because jai had already passed away.I cried when Shammiji passed away recently.Shammiji I love you.You were the best.


      2. That is not right Rishi ji, Jai was representing SJ……….please see the timing of interview…….Shammiji was passing through a lot of ailment and he must have by then repeated same thing in different context……..


      3. It is very sad when you read that on Shankar’s funeral nobody from the industry turned up.It looks as if Shankarji started his career very well but ended very badly.When you read about the funeral of other greats like,Jai,Mukeshji and Rafi sahab,It is sad,really sad.I have one question which I don’t know if I can get an answer,after Jai’s death did Jai’s wife continue her relation or friendship with Shankar.Since Shankar continued tagging Jai’s name was any royalty given to Jai’s family for using his name.


      4. Dear Rishi, Really sad that Shankerji’s step sons and family did not inform anybody. It is said that he died in the midnight and before the dawn his last rites were done and his body was consigned to flames. For some undisclosed reasons his family did with top secrecy only after Shanker became ashes few people could know about this. It is said that the family member were very upset for his relation with singer Sharda.

        Yes, people close to Shanker have said that he was in touch of Jai’s family till his last breathe

        Please say your place so that if you happen to be in Mumbai, I can call you during my visit to Mumbai when I will be meeting one very close person to Shankar-Jaikishan


    1. Sorry Shankerji did not have his own children , all were his step children . Abut the numbers of his children I will have to ask someone else, because Shankerji was very strict to bring his family in news.


  7. Thanks.But when you say step children,do you mean he had another wife or woman from whom he got these siblings.If yes, can I know who this lady is.


  8. A great and all time to remember article with rare photos. The music / songs created by Jaikishan are stored in CD of our brain so as to recall and when required. Great work by fans of SJ


    1. Thanks a lot Vasant ji for visiting the blog. I would like to correct your lines as under and hope and trust you would too appreciate this….

      You wrote, “The music / songs created by Jaikishan are stored in CD of our brain so as to recall and when required. Great work by fans of SJ…
      Which may be The music / songs created by Shankar-Jaikishan are stored in CD of our brain so as to recall and when required. Great work by fans of SJ..

      Sudarshan Pandey/Kolkata


      1. Sudershanji

        thanks for correction. Also thanks to everyone who are visiting this site and contributing for enhancing our knowledge

        with regards

        vasant datir


      2. Vasant ji, your visits make us do more in this campaign…….it is really sad that we are scattered…….


  9. Sir,

    I want to know whether any book is available on SJ either in Marathi/Gujarati/Hindi/English, if yes, kindly let me know from where it is available.


    1. Namaskar Vasant K Datir ji,

      Ek request hai, yeh sir mat kahiye please.

      There several books were published one of them is written by Shri Vishwa or Vishwas Nerurkar. Second book, most probably in Gujarati is written by Dr. Padmanabh Joshi ji. Shri Nerurkar is available on facebook and I have sent a message to him about you and gave him your e-mail i.d. His i.d. is not available to me. However, I am giving e-mail i.d. of Dr. Padmanabh Joshi ji. If you feel it necessary, you may refer my name to him. his i.d. is

      Sudarshan Pandey/Kolkata


    1. Dear Manoj ji, the links of one vary useful group on yahoo is given on this blog and two groups of mine on facebook. You are coordially invited on both of them. I will suggest you to first join shankarjaikishan group on yahoo. You will get heaps of stuff there in the archived (messages) posts there and if you find time to read them, I am sure you will be overwhelmed. On that group you can share everything about SJ except any song. For song sharing you may join facebook groups there are several more groups on SJ by SJ fans. But I don’t encourage being on facebook for it makes addict anyone at least for one year uske baad iska nashaa dheere-dheere utarta hai.

      I am waiting for you there on yahoo group. After joining you should give your introduction by posting/giving a message there.

      Sudarshan Pandey/Kol


  10. Shankar Jaikishan Musical Foundation – Hyderabad Telangana State ,is persuading with the State Government for the Installation SJ Statues in the Capital City of Hyderabad, Hyderabad ( Begam Bazar ) being the Birth Land of Music Director Padma Shree Shankar (Duo SJ ).
    ….. Buddha Priya Siddharth
    Founder Chairman – SJMF Hyderabad
    Mob # 09866854948


  11. Lovely articles and discussions. I am 63 years old. I have been following SJ music from my childhood. Shankar & Jaikishan were like two eyes of the same face. It may not be appropriate to highlight the versatility of Jai sidelining that of Shankar . He was in no way less creative than Jai. Of your eyes which is better is not a debatable issue.


  12. Shankar Jaikishan Musical Foundation – Hyderabad Telangana State is recognised by State Government and the Government is inclined to install the SJ Statues in the Heart of Hyderabad City. I feel that let the Statue of Shankar be installed side by Jaikishan so that ,our Government takes a stand for SJ Statues,

    Hope Dr. Padbhanaba Joshi and other prominent persons give prominence.

    Jai Shankar Jaikishan

    Buddha Priya Siddharth

    Founder Chairman SJMF -Hyderabad TS
    + 91 986 685 4948


  13. Shankar Jaikishan were such all time great Music Director,that no other music directors are seen in the vicinity also as far as popularity,melodi,evergreen ness,class are considered.They achieved 9 film fare awards in stiff competition of S.D.Burman,OP.
    Every song of them was great hit.Their music was always hit irrespective of films
    Lataji and their combination was out of this word.Shankar Jaikishan you are always in my heart.RIP


  14. I am a great fan of sj and my ears are only for their music.I consider them to be the greatest musicdirectors of articlesll time.I read the above articles with great inerest.I am also thankful to you for providing useful information on s.j.



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